May 14, 2020 in Technology

The Use of Technology to Enhance Business Managers’ Training Programs

Abstract

The paper discusses the potential ways of A.I. usage and risks following it. It touches the problems of weaponization, possible ways of monitoring and control over the A.I. and ways of protecting the humanity in case of uncontrolled A.I. activity. The main purpose of the work is to provide the overviews of the latest literature sources including articles and scientific excerpts to cover the questions of potential risks and threats of A.I in various spheres of its potential influence. The paper would compare and contrast the arguments of various specialists considering the problem of A.I. and its importance for the humanity. The analysis of various literature sources including the most actual reviews and articles was provided. A.I. development is important for the future of humanity that is why it is essential to be protected and prepared in case of necessity for the future development of this sphere of human activity.

 

Introduction

The high level of technology development and rapid changes of the character and direction of innovations caused the wave of ideas and worrying about the future of humanity in conditions of extreme development of smart machinery. Artificial Intelligence has become the leading topic for discussions and investigation recently causing disputable questions and setting more tasks rather than giving answers to the current problems. The leading ideas of speeches in the world of science and among the famous people from technology sphere include the possible cases of A.I. danger for the humanity and development of supreme control methods that would be ahead the A.I. development to make sure that it is under full control of people.

The problematics of A.I includes a number of points covering both positive and negative potential influences on human life. The productive use of A.I. could help the people in their work in specific life-threatening environment, perform work faster and more qualitatively than human workers perform, develop better calculations for transitions of goods and providing all the specialists with better system of decisions leading the research groups to new inventions. It is logical that in case of being programmed for the protection of Earth safety, the A.I. can consider the people as the main cause of harm to Earth and this point could have destruction and millions of human casualties. Such possible variants and ideas lead to the single solution and now the scientific society requirement of developing controlling opportunities that would be in control of A.I. behavior and development. Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking as well as Bill Gates spend significant amount of time trying to adhere to the society’s thought and persuade them in the live necessity to have the controlling system before the development and final introduction of A.I. The goal of the current study is to investigate the ideas and facts of potential danger of A.I. to people, evaluate the data on the possibility of weaponization of A.I. Besides, it is essential for the paper to find the risks and opportunities to control and monitor the work and potential risks that might arise in the process of A.I. wide usage by humanity. The later aspect is very controversial as some researchers state there is an opportunity to create the controlling measures that would exceed the A.I. abilities. The question of control system creation and discussions over its potential opportunities and required abilities is one of the most difficult yet controversial. The research questions are:

  • Is Artificial intelligence a threat to human kind?
  • Can Artificial intelligence be weaponized?
  • How to monitor and control the risks of Artificial intelligence?

Research Questions

The research questions of the current paper come out of the numerous variants and potential ways of development giving a good opportunity for the deeper research and comparison of the most realistic of them. The questions under consideration present the points that are difficult to state with confidence and need more information to make all further conclusions.

Research Question # 1 (RQ1): Is Artificial intelligence a threat to human kind?

Every invention or opportunity has both sides including negative effects and potentially productive and useful points. A.I. is in the process of rapid development nowadays that is why it is essentially important to investigate and know possible threats and dangers of it. Moreover, the power that is supposed to exaggerate the abilities of human brain should be well researched and tested before its application into various spheres of society life.

Research Question # 2 (RQ2): Can Artificial intelligence be weaponized?

Despite the positive intentions of the scientific world leaders, the potential of A.I. technology can be easily programmed to kill and can be weaponized. Moreover, it is known that some countries work on the process of creating A.I. machines that could be able to perform military tasks and kill the enemies in case of inevitable measure. The question of weaponization is very sharp in nowadays society and needs deeper research and further discussing.

Research Question # 3 (RQ3): How to monitor and control the risks of Artificial intelligence?

Control and monitoring of A.I. is essential due to the potential threat to human race in general in case of destructive decisions of the super smart system. This sphere of research is the most difficult as the humanity have never had to face such a difficult task. The evolution of technology reached the immense peak requiring the scientists to search the new ways of protecting people from their own creations.

Literature Review

The problem of artificial intelligence has become a starting point for numerous discussions several year ago after the statement of Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk lecture when they both stated the potential dangers of its development. According to Stephen Hawking, A.I. refers to the powers that obtain dual opportunity, as they can be both useful and harmful. Speaking about A.I. both scientists state, that A.I. can be even more dangerous than nuclear power. According to Hawking, greater part of A.I. potential depends on the person who will be in control of its system. However, there is no guaranty that people who would obtain these technologies would have productive and positive ideas.

Artificial intelligence is being discussed in three main aspects including potential risks and opportunities, military usage and opportunities for controlling it. However, some of the researchers participated in World Economic Forum apart from the general flow of the discussion, suppose the vain spending of time for discussing future threats to humanity while there are more important and real problems including famine in the world, human trafficking and usage of children labor. Evaluating the potential ways of using artificial intelligence, a number of researchers coincide in their ideas that the power of this resource is uncountable. However, according to Geist, the greatest threat of A.I. is in its similarity to the human brain and its potential to copy and develop the processes. This leads to the idea of threatening the humanity by superintelligence opportunities that could possibly become in charge of the most important segments of human activities. Later in his article, Geist supports the idea of negative influence of A.I. for the humanity due to its unbeatable opportunity to manipulate the humans covering its actions by visual following to the stated rules and requirements while in fact fulfilling the prerogative task that potentially can suppose destruction of human race on the Planet. Such ideas base of logically derived conclusions taking into account the super intellectual abilities of A.I. and the predictable way of its behavior and development. However, some researchers state that all the fears of popular people are baseless as the humanity is far from the possibility of creating some intellect that would be smart enough to outwit the human brain and to enslave the people. Moreover, he states that A.I. can be used for performing just one specifically determined activity like predicting the earthquakes or calculating the best economic decision without having an opportunity to make decisions to destroy people.

One of the possible negative results of increased usage of A.I. in future is significant fall of the economy and the growing level of unemployment. This idea bases on the fact that A.I. can potentially be able to perform the human task more efficiently, controlling the employees, sorting out the papers and even making the decisions. Such wide usage of A.I. would eventually cause the exaggerated demand in highly productive artificially smart workers while human employees would be forced to look for other job opportunities. Geist supports the same idea, although he drives his hypothesis even further, speaking about the possibility of A.I. overcomes the regulatory politics of the company and uses all its opportunities to change the generally accepted flow of the performance and takes control to itself. In such a way, the researchers suppose the robots can start leading the people and controlling them leading the humanity to one of the predicted threats.

The problem of weaponization is slightly touched by James Barrat, as he mentioned the fact of development of machines that would have the aim of destruction or killing of specifically determined objects. More than 50 countries in the world, according to James Barrat, have specific scientific centers and labs that are busy with development of armed and fighting machines, that could later be programmed to kill the objects or even people that could be potentially dangerous. This sphere needs deeper research on the problem of potential possibility of using such machines in the open conflicting points on Earth. However, most of the programs in the field of A.I. and weapons worked together are prohibited for any research or investigations.

Nevertheless, the current situation presents wide usage of weapons and various kinds of armory that provide the robots with significant war abilities. According to the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, the usage of armored robots is increasing in the world and furthermore, the process of equipping them with autonomous programs requires creation of topnotch controlling systems. Edward Geist states in his article that the process of weaponization has already taken place in the world and now the humanity has to think over and develop the sources of controlling it. The fact is that while the world is getting ready for the opportunity to have armed robots, they already exist and signal the researchers that they have to work harder to provide these potentially dangerous systems with enough security level and control of their usage.

Speaking about the problem of monitoring and control, this sphere is the most discussed and researched for the current moment. At the same time, the changes in creation of worthy tactics of monitoring and control are insignificant. Although Elon Musk donated more than $10 million dollars to the company working on creation of control systems, and the whole question is highly supported by Stephen Hawking and Bill Gates and other important and famous people of contemporary digital world, the problem remains unsolved. The most difficult point for the current moment is the A.I. underdeveloped and the researchers have no potential opportunity to test their system. Moreover, the existing technologies are not smart enough to make sure that could cope with the task of monitoring and controlling future super smart A.I. However, Hawking mentions that there is no chance to create the A.I. that would overcome the human brain in its potential and still be able to control it. He mentions that the fact of A.I. being able to predict any further actions of a person who is in control of it, can manipulate and direct the actions of this element in the side required by the logic of A.I.

In general, the literature resources on the problem of A.I. take into account potential risks of A.I. development for the humanity, including the problem of developing powerful system of control. However, this scientific field has more questions than answers and it is evident that time is the most significant obstacle for the humanity at this point of its development. Most of the researchers stress the fact of essential opportunity to have this time before A.I. significant development to realize all protective measures that would help to control this immense power in the future.

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