Public Relations Theories
Many practitioners emphasize the importance of Public Relations (PR) management for presenting the information and persuading public to accept a particular perspective. Showing positive and negative sides of the case allows to demonstrate it to the wide range of people from different social backgrounds and educational perspectives in order to perceive the news equally. That is why many investigators study the necessary aspects of public relations in order to deliver the objective information and make it understandable. The aim of this paper is to analyse two theories in PR – namely, excellence theory and relationship management – in the realm of current issues covered in the media.
PR management covers numerous theories that explain different models. Effective PR allow to systemize internal and external environments of the organization by presenting its strong sides and understanding the weaknesses and the ways to overcome them. The primary role of PR is to determine the organization’s major decisions and establish its tactics in the market. The evaluation of PR with the help of opinion polls and basic media analysis reveals the campaign perspective and allows to monitor the progress of media relations. Using PR to create an image and a certain type of representation for the company has become a specific topic of academic studies. Presenting different sides of PR theories for the representation of different events will allow to see its role, because the popularity of firm will establish its reputation.
A theoretical conception of PR in the light of excellence management develops the understanding of PR as the paramount system regulating decisions of the firm. According to its concept, PR stands “on the top of the ladder” regulating rhetorical, interpretative, cultural and critical perspectives.
When discussing the development of PR in Australia in 1950s, its liberal manner and social upbringing have formed positive social attitudes towards the government. Such model was similar to the American PR system, which was established as the first known public relations model. In many cases, mentality and historical background are the key factors predetermining the direction of PR. Besides, the competitiveness of social environment and growing demands of the working environment require proper estimation and decision-making strategies. Certainly, the responsibility component in PR is essential for further understanding of social roles. The impact of the information on the society requires analysis of its content. Therefore, PR managers need to direct their efforts towards better propaganda and promotional strategies. The validity of information approved by PR techniques predetermines the responsibility function of PR and shows the function of social psychology theories in the mass consumption of data.
Another perspective supporting the excellence theory involves the game theory, which anticipates the satisfaction of the interests of both public and coalition. Their interests coincide within the so-called ‘win-win zone’ representing the practice of the mixed motive communication. The outcomes of the game involve collaboration, compromise, avoidance, accommodation, no deal or contending. Certainly, the failure is possible, but proper PR can prevent negative outcomes. The dialogue enables the sides to level up and unite their interests to achieve the necessary aim. L. Edwards exemplifies such achievement as promoting a purchase of iPod by a 30-40 years old person. Although such people do not prefer music in favour of studying and free time, a PR strategy enables such people to buy the product. In this situation, the PR promotion functions as a stimulus and motivation for buying an iPod.
Marketing sphere involves PR, beyond any doubt. Due to the successful application of PR and excellence theory, strategic management unites management and marketing spheres. When discussing 4Ps, known as a marketing mix, A. Theaker and H. Yaxley emphasize the synergy principle, due to which both PR and marketing function. Place distinguishes the channels of distribution, while price indicates the quality. The customer considers the purchase when the product is in the high-end department store and its promotion reveals messages that appeal to the buyer. The interconnection of marketing and PR involves both informational and emotional tactics. Such strategies create memorable images and advertise the product well by demonstrating its necessity.
The PR of military events, such as an anti-terrorist operation, refers to the happenings that provoke deep emotions. In such case, the emotional side of the promoted message is emphasized. Propaganda of a volunteer activity or patriotic position of the public creates the conditions for the unification of the government and the public. In this case, a win-win strategy is possible, as both parties wish to stop the war. Nevertheless, the strength of the opposing army reveals itself through the gunfire, demonstrating the uncertainty and misunderstanding of the severances of the Ukrainian parties. The problem that has been lasting for more than a year has become a hotly disputed issue in the mass media. The abundance of the information discloses the importance of the Ukrainian anti-terror operation. The Russian position has been disclaimed and the country is now considered an aggressor. The act establishing sanctions and excluding Russia from the G8 by the European countries also contributed to the propaganda of the event showing the feedback of PR influence in media. In most cases, the emotional content of such information is negative, and people would prefer some more positive information. The informational overload created by military events functions as an ‘anti-PR’ strategy making the public transfer to other sources. Such tendencies prove the paramount impact of PR representing it as the driving force in social media and the basis of the formation of the social thought.
Relationship management model of PR considers the uniqueness of partner involved. An important aspect of establishing a profound relationship between the partners involves creating a plan. Managing media events trough calendar will help systemize the scope of work and determine the importance of specific actions. Meeting clients or doing charity work can promote the company and involve more clients and partners. Media blogs are an effective instrument for representing the firm’s strategies and scope of work. Arranging content according to the dates and the level of importance helps direct and apply business strategies necessary for the company to proceed in the right direction. Taking into account the nature of business, a PR manager or a journalist is responsible for organizing events and meeting the deadlines.
Identifying a certain type of visitors that see the blog can be helpful in enrolling more employers for the small business. The people dedicated to social media channel can work faster and have a high degree of motivation. Still the scope of work and the day regime can differ which will result in the differences of quality of work.
T. Sabourin distinguishes the vitality of social media press-releases as inevitable part of propaganda and promotion for better PR strategy. Social networks provide the necessary environment for branding the product. The transference of media from TV and newspapers in 1990 and 2000s showed the leading role of the World Wide Web as the universal information holder.
The Internet all advertisements and information that allows data to be transferred among the users so that everyone can find and read what he needs. As a result, PR deals with every sphere of marketing and involves multiple approaches for each particular case. For instance, when promoting Apple production, either tablets or iPhones, decent PR reveals the possibility to gain the end users of all ages and nationalities to buy the product. A planning strategy will involve arranging different events for various audiences. Multiple tasks for the PR campaign and its management can be approved by the excellence model to show its interconnection with the relationship management. Such strategies will reveal the company’s perspectives and extend its possibilities to maximize the choice of the product and satisfaction of the users’ needs.
Questionnaires are essential for the formation of relationships both in business and in the society. The knowledge and understanding of general public’s opinion is possible due to the surveys. The statistical data is processed after the survey is taken to reveal the tendencies and make the necessary decisions to promote the solutions. Mail surveys, telephone enquiries, online electronic questionnaires and personal interviews are the main ways of holding effective surveys. The data gathered will provide the basis for directing PR strategies and finding suitable decisions. Therefore, the elaboration of self-explaining and self-understanding questions is as important as the general strategy. The questions dealing with sensitive topics provide extended information from the addressee. That is why each issue requires a certain type of question to appeal to different types of people to reveal their emotions in the light of the present-day situation.
Relationship conception involves the distinction of the types of public. L. Edwards suggests that active public is able to influence the organization and passive public that does not wish to deal with the firm. The typology of public is demonstrated as a reaction to the news connected with wars, and it is essential to determine the attitude of the nation and to motivate its patriotic feelings. The relationship aspect in this respect is the key element of unification of the information pattern that is being promoted.
All public types concentrate on the injustices carried out through organizations. Apathetic public type does not care about any issues and does not have any decisive perspective. Single-issue public type prefers a particular topic and can be very active in one area. Hot issue public is active in the issue that has a broad societal concern, such as the impact of alcohol or drugs. Such people remain active about a hotly disputed issue, but for a short period of time.
Most topics of particular concern comprise of the hidden messages that have impact on the human psyche showing the unconscious interest in or dependence on a certain topic. The fame of different firms has been demonstrated by logos, the advertisement of which has promoted their positions in the market and in the world. Usually brand signs are simple and understandable. Although, their elaboration requires a lot of time and fantasy. The end result allows the producer to earn high profits due to the brand recognition. In fact, the unknown meaning of the logotypes demonstrates it from a different perspective, focusing on its strengths.
When dealing with logos, some companies spend enormous sums of money to make them unusual. Particularly, the analysts connected Pepsi logotype of an uneven white wave to Einstein’s explanation of the Relativity theory. Toyota’s ellipses stand for the heart of the customer, product and progress. A famous architect Gaudi considered ellipse as the most harmonious form, unlike the globe or circle. This harmony is an unconscious technique that represents safety and universality of the car. Therefore, Toyota’s logo is a bright example of the win-win strategy.
The colour representation in BMW logo that deals with the national Bavarian symbol has made the brand recognizable worldwide. Replacing the colours has only promoted the product, as the key consumer has interest in the brand, and all the PR techniques have promoted the brand and made a wide propaganda.
All in all, this paper has analysed modern issues from the PR perspectives of relationship management and excellence theory. When generalizing the role of PR, it is necessary to mention its penetration into all public spheres. Every firm, web-site or service requires a good advertisement to establish profitability. The firm’s market position can be strengthened by proper PR strategies, which involve blogging and other types of advertisements and promotions.