Globalization Study Guide 1




Globalization Study Guide 1

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Globalization Study Guide 1

1. What does Lechner mean by the term globalization?

In broad sense, the term globalization by Lechner means a development of global system of interconnection, and intercommunication allowing people to interact with each for virtually any part of the world. This global system incorporates a complex combination of various processes, ways, and instruments that connect different parts of the world together.

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2. What are the four dimensions of globalization? How does the international trade in tuna exemplify each of these dimensions? In what ways does the sport of soccer exemplify each of these dimensions?

The four specific dimensions are the following:

1. Diffusion - the dimension of active spread of practices, values, and products throughout the globe. The examples of this dimension are spread of popularity of soccer and sushi (and as a result, stimulated tuna trade) from the countries of their origin to other parts of the world.

2. Interdependence the mutual influence of actions by different people around the world, which involves technology and market integration. For example, the sushi consumption become dependent on deliveries of fish, and changes in these deliveries can have effect on lives of people on the other side of the globe.

3. Organization the process of creating global norms that govern international processes, activities and organizations. Global spread of popularity of soccer has led to creation of international committees and organizations that govern all processes in soccer life of the world.

4. Culture/Consciousness the process of understanding the unity of the world as a whole. For example, the development of tuna trade has led to global fishing industry and thinking globally.

3. According to Lechner, when did the third wave of globalization begin and what distinguishes this third wave from the two that preceded it? Is it fair to argue that each of the dimensions of globalization Lechner highlights operated in a more intense fashion during the third wave as opposed to the first and second? Why or why not?

The third wave of globalization began after World War II and it was significantly different from the first two waves. The first difference is the overall scale of globalization, which resulted in increase of the global trade. Second difference is that global institutions became more influential in managing international interaction than states. The third difference is that the third wave of globalization developed the world culture and consciousness and created a sense of belonging to a world society. It also created relations that incorporated people of the world into global processes. All these differences correspond to the four dimensions of the globalization, so it can be said that the third way had more radical changes than the previous two.

4. According to Watsons account of McDonalds in Hong Kong, how does the experience of McDonalds customers in Hong Kong resemble and differ from that of their counterparts in the West? What features of McDonalds have the people of Hong Kong embraced? What features have they resisted?

McDonalds Hong Kong The took a form of hybridization as opposed to homogenization in th the West. McDonalds customers in Hong Kong embraced some features of McDonalds, such as the restaurants standard menu, including fries and Big Macs. However, unlike in the West, they have influenced the restaurant to changes some practices, which became different from the universal model creating a unique combination of Western and Chinese features.

5. How does the theory of cultural imperialism explain recent changes in the global media? What if any evidence exists that supports the claim that media globalization displays the features of cultural imperialism?

The theory of cultural imperialism explains the changes in the global media by the process of capitalism intervention. Capitalist model views people as consumers of products. Media, as a powerful tool of shaping public opinion, has changed to fit this capitalist model, which is manifested in broadcasting images that encourage consumption of products of companies that have influence on media. The example of cultural imperialism in the process of media globalization is the expansion of Western television and cinema of the rest of the World and its effect on culture of numerous countries around the world.

6. What does Lechner mean by glocalization? In what ways does the example of Indian television demonstrate that trends toward cultural homogenization have been offset by the maintenance of considerable variety in the global media system?

Lechner refers to glocalization as a process cultural hybridization as the result of the influence of the Western cultural model. Glocalization, unlike homogenization, does not replace local culture with the Western model, but rather results in the combination of the two. Indian television is an example of glocalization as it adopted many features of the Western television. Indians even created their own prototype of Hollywood, called Bollywood. Howerer, instead of copying all the features of Hollywood, Bollywood employed the main principles of Western television and created a completely new genre that reflects Indian culture.

7. According to Shim, has Korean popular culture gained a following in other Asian countries? Which of two main concepts that have been used to explain cultural globalization best describe the culture industry in Korea cultural imperialism or glocalization and why?

Shim states that Korean pop culture has gain great popularity in a number of East Asian countries and even in the West. The Korean cultural industry can be best explained with the concept of glocalization as it used features of the Western cultural industry, such as rap, as well as Korean traditional Korean music genres. The result of such integration is not only a new musical genre, but a completely new distinctive pop culture.

8. Why do Micklethwait and Wooldridge believe that globalization is worth defending on more than just narrow economic grounds?

Besides economic effects, Micklethwait and Wooldridge also indicate that globalization has affected the possibility of people to exercise their political freedom by expanding individual liberties. The authors state that people gained more freedom in a new globalized world due to many emerging possibilities of wealth accumulation, limiting the power of government, and by facilitating tourism and migration.

9. Why does Huntington believe that the most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations from one another? What are the eight major civilizations in the world today and do they differ? What will the central fault line be in the future, according to Huntington?

Huntington states that that the most important conflicts in the future will occur due to cultural fault lines because he believes globalization accentuate on and increase cultural differences more than it merges them together. The increased interaction between civilizations helped them to find out more about their differences and thus, increased their cultural self-awareness. As the globalization continues to expand its effect on countries, the conflicts will become more serious. Huntington suggest that the central fault line be in the future will be the conflict between the Western civilization and the rest of the world on the basis of religious differences, Specifically differences between Western Christianity on one hand and other major world religions on the other.

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