Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2006). Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language.

This experimental article appeared to be the first in the scope of research of the role of retrieval process in the course of learning. This study presents a consistent and relevant insight into the impact of repeated retrieving of the learnt material with the purpose of long-term and high-quality retention.

In its turn, the experiments of the current study were inspired by the research and scientific work provided by Tulving. The theoretical basis, provided by this illustrious scientist, is as follows, tests not only assess learning but also produce it. His results showed that, within broad limits, a test can substitute for a study trial and produce the same amount of learning (Karpicke & Roediger, 2006).

The study comprises sufficient theoretical background, description and profound analysis of two relevant experiments, result discussion, and finally results assessment as well as set of recommendations. The results appear to be positive and efficient for improvement of long-term retention. The concept of memory is not regarded in a broad and detailed manner, though it is evidently the basic phenomenon in the scope of study as well as the notion of learning. The experimental study provides proper theory that is necessary for complete comprehension of the essence of the investigated issue. The same function belongs to the detailed description. Therefore, the paper presents a relevant and informative study with the useful for the whole field of knowledge results and prospects of further investigation.

Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, M. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

This study appeared in three years after the previous one had been introduced. The study that has been conducted by Kornell, Hays, and Bjork broadens the generally accepted concepts of learning, memory, level of efficiency of the course of retention by means of retrieval, etc. Consequently, the scientists suggest completely opposite to the stance that tests enhance retention, and therefore controversial solution. The suggested solution is as follows: in case tests are unsuccessful in the scope of proper retrieval; subsequently these attempts will enhance the final results and outcomes of learning process.

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The study concerns the same key concepts, though regards them from rival perspective. Therefore, two studies are directly interrelated in conceptual and historical scope; though present a proper sequence of each experimental experience. Moreover, the currently discussed study is evidently based on the previous investigation and its theoretical framework, as every opposition has dual essence and different perspective.

The profound analysis of the six experiments permitted to make the following conclusion: initially unsuccessful answers in the course of test appear to be helpful in the future provided the stipulation that guarantees critical feedback. The authors of the study emphasize: A practical implication of the current research is that educators and learners should introduce challenges into learning situations, including using tests as learning events, even if doing so increases initial error rates (Kornell, Hays, & Bjork, 2013).

The study emphasizes the variety of diverse methods of efficient and long-term memorizing. As a consequence, it reveals the controversial essence of the concept of memory as well as provides further space for more profound research and experiment experience, or even to the discovery of one more miscellaneous method to improve retention process.

Finn, B., & Roediger, H. L. (2013). Interfering effects of retrieval in learning new

information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

This study comprises 7 experiments concerning such key concepts as memory, retention, and retrieval. The study is the most recent, and is directly connected with the previous two. It suggests one more perspective of efficient retention and subsequent long-term memorizing, more specifically interfering retrieval. This approach comprises the involvement of associative updating. This process deals with incorporating new information into an associative memory (Finn & Roediger, 2013). The scheme of the suggested approach to efficient retention of necessary data is as follows: a new contextual detail appears initially, and subsequently it is transformed into a learned association.

Actually, the empirical basis is novel as all the 7 experiments have been performed by the authors of the discussed investigation with strict accordance to their innovative vision of retention effectiveness. Besides, the theoretical framework appears to be relevant to all the studies as it majorly comprises the key concepts background. Though, it is not quite so as the final outcomes of the study are quite complicated for further accommodation within current theories which emphasize, as a rule, all the benefits of retrieval for the process of efficient long-term learning. Therefore, the presented approach appears to form one more opposition to the generally accepted one.

Thus, the currently discussed study presents the continuation of the research process in the scope of efficient learning and long-term memorizing. Three different perspectives present diverse dimensions of the concept of memory and its possibilities provided properly organized and timely implemented approach. Though, there is still space for further investigation and future contribution to the field of experimental psychology.

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