Male Abuse Vs Female abuse in domestic relationships


It is widely believed that cases of violence against women occur relatively more frequently than cases of violence against men. The premise stated above is grounded on the construct of males supremacy in most societies. The cultural paradigm, which most communities accept, specifies that a man should be considered as the head of a family. Unfortunately, it happens so that the mens superior position in a family leads to domestic violence, including both moral and physical. Cases of moral and physical abuse have proved to be among the most crucial social issues of the contemporary age. Scholars tend to believe that moral abuse leads to physical abuse almost inevitably. Hence, researchers make an assertion that in most cases women are victimized as a result of abuse to which males subject other families members.



The following project has been designed to explore abuse that both genders subject one another to. One of the main objectives of the research is to study causes and effects of male and female abuse. Apart from that, the research intends to study and compare the rates of male and female abuse and how abuse that both genders subject one another to affects the society on the whole. Specifically, the research will focus on the question of what exactly may lead to abuse, including both male and female abuse. In addition to that, the research intends to explore how abuse affects all those uninvolved, namely other family members and especially children. The research is about to study how male and female abuse affects households. The study intends to answer the question of whether or not abuse is associated with age and how the households life in the society reflects the way of life inside the house. The research is about to identify risks that domestic violence may potentially increase. Males and females response to violence is about to be investigated as well. Lastly, the research will explore the link between the rates of male and female abuse and the social climate itself. At this point, it is essential to point out that the following research incorporates findings of other scientists.

Upon reviewing the literature, it can be hypothesized that abuse that men subject women to occur more frequently than the acts of violence committed by women. Apart from that, it is possible to assert that younger members of family are victimized due to domestic violence more than the older ones. Finally, many scholars contend that moral abuse may lead to physical abuse almost inevitably.

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Literature Review

Scientists led by L. Nuttbrock have found out that that the estimated rates of the lifetime physical abuse were 51.3% and 47.4% respectively for younger and older respondents that they have interviewed. Developing their statement further, the researchers make the following assertion: The perpetrators of both types of abuse for both the younger and older respondents were most often parents or other family members during adolescence. The statements noted above presuppose that violence can be directed even against older members of the family and this means that it can be against the mother in addition to younger members, which are those who are still teenagers.

This research proposal gathers data from several experts and other researchers as they: - identify the concept of domestic violence and compare the kinds of abuse; - document their ongoing thinking in relation to their specialty; - study and compare the data they have managed to gather in order to come out with a reliable identification of the theory they discuss.

The first type of abuse, according to Smedslund et al., is the one that is relatively less violent. However, abuse upon repletion tends to become relatively more violent physically. Violence by men against an intimate female partner is a serious and common problem, with between 10% and 34% of women reporting in national surveys that they have been assaulted by a male partner.

The experts insist on other reasons behind abuse according to each society and each family. Depression might be one of the reasons that provoke the man to abuse his partner or any other family member although it defers from one gender to another. Neill and Kulkarni report that: it seems that the type and the duration of stressor, as well as the behavioural parameters that we measure, influence the appearance and direction of sex differences in stress response. Depressive-like symptomatology is also expressed differently between the two sexes. Bad habits may also lead to abuse, especially when the man has an addiction. Drugs and alcohol addictions, which are considered as reasons of abuse due to their consequences, are on the top of the reasons behind the abuse against the women and men alike. However, some researchers suggest that women are more vulnerable to drugs than men. According to Neill and Kulkarni, women as opposed to men are more subject to the negative impact of drug abuse. The reasons behind this fact are womans hormones that affect their senility toward drugs, which leads to more aggressive actions. The consequences can be applied to both genders. They can represent a womens reaction to the man or they can be a reason of female abuse toward the male.

Moreover, consequences might transfer to the rest of the family members who would act with the younger household the same way their parents act with each other or with them as Smedslund et al. suggest that Violent behaviour constitutes a serious problem in societies worldwide. Intimate partner abuse is especially problematic because it takes place in the private family sphere, making it a difficult arena for intervention and help. It means that the consequences of the abuse may lead to the destruction of the whole family. There is always an action and a reaction, which also affects the way the family deals with other members who come from outside their family. With regard to this, the following statement should be mentioned: The World Health Assembly, in 1996 declared that violence was a growing problem throughout the world, recognizing serious medium and long term health outcomes for individuals, communities and societies alike. In brief, the familys daily life influences the way family members deal with their societies and their members as this bad behavior and bad habits may represent a serious threat to the societys values and negatively affect the relationships with the community. Abuse in domestic relationships can no way be controlled once it breaks out. Therefore, those who are responsible for their families well-being are obliged to try hard to overcome problems once they appear before they get out of control. When the abuse continues, it becomes a way of life for those who are abused as Persistent abuse reflected a set of circumstances and psychological context in which abuse was an ongoing and largely inescapable aspect of ones life. It means that continuous abuse becomes a part of ones psychological character that is to be expressed in ones daily life. Ones life within the society reflects domestic atmosphere within the family.

The second kind of abuse is the physical one and it is much more dangerous than the moral one. Its consequences may lead to the destruction of the entire family just as the previous kind of abuse. According to Desmarais et al. women sustained physical injuries in 42% of IPV cases, received medical attention in 11% of cases, and were hospitalized in 9% of cases. Developing their statement further, the scholars make an assertion as follows: 18% of women surveyed reported lost time from work or other economic hardship associated with victimization. In the previous case, the specialists connect between depression and hardships. The results of this kind of abuse, especially if it is repeated, may lead to death.

Desmarais et al. point out that constant exposure to violence may increase the risk of chronic diseases; in the most serious cases, physical IPV can be lethal. This differs from one society to another; it means that in some societies women cannot express what they suffer from because they are considered as a lower class people. Even when the community provides equality between the two genders, there might not be proper institutions or social associations to help protect females against their oppressors. Therefore, those incidences are more likely to lead to many psychological problems, which end in either suicide or the use of violence against the oppressor as a reaction that may also result in a crime. It does not only affect those two sides that are involved, but also other members who live in the same family in case their lives as one family end in a tragic way. It will be definitely transferred to the rest of the family who will suffer from the same social problems in the future; they may face those problems when they start their own lives separate from their partners.

In some societies that are considered to be conservative, the rate of females abuse is rather high. DeKeseredy reports that numerous sociologists, especially those who are feminists, argue that there is something about broader structural and cultural forces, such as patriarchy, that allows for so very many women to be victimized. This reflects social beliefs as a major factor that governs behavior of individuals. Moreover, patriarchal societies may spread many ideas and concepts to change the understanding of their individuals through many social groups that have an influence on the population. Some social groups operated by males may claim that activities intended to protect and help women aim to take control over men and raise women to control every aspect of the society in order to increase hatred toward those activists. This propaganda insists on the supremacy of men and the inability of women to participate in any activity that takes place outside their doorsteps. Therefore, the females abuse in this case is moral as the community considers them to be lower than men because God created them like this; therefore, they are treated like slaves.

Females abuse caused by those societies is not only about moral concepts, but also moves on to take a more violent face. Attacking feminist activists is a part of this abuse as DeKeseredy claims there are frequent vitriolic attacks on feminist scholarship, some of which include assaults on researchers' professionalism and integrity. Such manners in dealing with the idea of equality and fighting the females abuse reveal the real face of those societies that never take into consideration the social, educational, or cultural class of women. What comes in the first place for them is gender; therefore, males are the only people who are allowed to participate in taking decisions and changing what needs to be changed in the community.

Moreover, researchers analyze men being abused by their wives or female partners and demonstrate social problems they encounter. Males are considered as a supreme gender and many societies do not accept the fact that a man is abused by his female partner. This may also lead to the same problem as women face or in case of marriage it may make the husband who might also be a father search for another partner. This will definitely lead to the destruction of the family. Abuse carried out by females is more likely to occur in communities characterized by relative equality of genders. In other words, abuse of men can also occur in communities where men in families allegedly play the role of the superiors. It can be related to many reasons like age, financial problems, and family problems. Some men cannot handle such problems and, therefore, their wives or female partners take care of those difficulties. This phenomenon can be observed in families with disabled people in the first place. There are several cases when a non-working female abuses the disabled person. This happens when the wife or the female partner does not have the motive or the will to serve the old person, mostly a male individual, or when a working female does not have the time to take care of that person. In this case, abuse is a result of tension and low energy, thus making abuse of a disabled member in the family a way of relief. Although such cases could be seen everywhere, they are mostly observed in Asian countries where the majority of women do not work. In this case, their behavior inside the family is a reflection of their society that does not treat them as equal to males.

Abuse to which younger members of the household subject the older ones is negatively associated with inequality within the society in general. It is not easy for a man, no matter whether he is disabled or normal, to accept the fact of being abused. Even more so, societies are more likely to accept the idea of a woman being abused by a man rather than the opposite. Thus, the study focuses on women being abused rather than on men who do not have their requirements met and start to act aggressively in response.

Research Methods

In the following research, the main focus is on qualitative methods, namely, literature review and observation. Review of literature has been essential for getting introduced to the problem of domestic violence. In addition to that, review of literature informs about findings made by other scholars who have studied the problem of domestic violence previously. Observation of other peoples behavior in public places and their ways of interacting with one another has been important for understanding the current state of things within the framework of the problem being studied.

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