Motivation is the main power that makes people work for the benefits of the company or themselves. Therefore, one should remember that successful business operation and work of the team depend not only on the inner motivation of people but also on the external factors such as leaders style, proper explanation of the targets, and individual role in the team. Effective work of the executives and their subordinates can make weak companies grow and increase the achievements of each worker and the whole organization. Hence, as the functioning of the whole system consists of the proper functioning of its parts, the work of the big organization depends on the proper work and motivation of each worker. Nevertheless, each person should understand that operation of any organization is a complex process that is dependent on numerous factors including the level of personal satisfaction, environment, and atmosphere in the team. Therefore, each executive has to understand the necessity and crucial importance of motivational training. To my mind, the main information of this course helps to understand the formation and development of the motivation on the basis of theoretical and experimental knowledge and emphasizes the great role of each individual in shaping the whole process.
A number of readings presented the basic theoretical knowledge on what predetermines human behavior. Connection between the needs of a person and their performance is based on various theories presented by such psychologists as Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland, Vroom, Adam, Locke, Latham, and Skinner. The above-mentioned motivational theories answer the question why motivation appears. According to hierarchy of needs theory, the needs that are more important or inferior are essential means of boosting the human motivation and they predetermine the behavior in various situations. According to the hygiene theory, the main urge is to change the status and conditions from undesirable to the desired ones. Affiliation and power theory presumes that the primary life motives of people let one group them according to the strength of manifestation of various motivators. According to the expectancy theory, the motivation is highly dependent on the correlation between the necessary efforts and the desired outcomes. To my mind, it is quite logical that one usually searches for the best results with the least efforts. The equity theory is focused on the level of human recognition and detection of inequity as the crucial motivator for people. The goal-setting theory marks the importance of the strict goals and understanding of the tasks as the essential means to motivate a person and lead to the higher results in general. According to the operant conditioning theory, the reward and recognition are stronger motivators than punishment, but the negative reinforcement is still necessary to prevent the undesirable deeds. I believe that each of the theory makes a contribution to the proper perception of peoples deeds. However, it is important to understand the workplace as a social system, not merely a productive one in order to get use of the above-mentioned scientific ideas. I tend to agree that it is more effective to group people according to some peculiar characteristics instead of regarding them as similar in their reactions. Such peculiarities can be determined by various situations and circumstances. Anyway, there is much practical evidence that the responses of people to the same stimuli may differ.
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The theoretical approach to various issues is important. However, one cannot get the proper results without the experimental evidence that would support the idea. Moreover, the cause and effect relationships can be demonstrated mainly through the experiment. The course readings show how numerous elements of objective, subjective, empirical, theoretical, perceived, and rational nature determine the complexity maintaining its environment, interaction among variables, and results assessment. The proper understanding of such parts or the experiment as the hypothesis, choice of the dependent and independent variables, division of the sample population into the control and experimental groups, and marking out the correlations can let one hold the researches themselves and even find some variables influencing the motivation in some separate conditions. This knowledge can become useful not only for the scientists but also for the leaders and manager, who are interested in raising the effectiveness of work of some definite group of subordinates. The circumstances and some definite situations are essential components of the results of the experiment and it shows the practical outcomes of applying theory to life. However, it is important to remember that each person should feel that he/she is important. Such issue is explained as Hawthorne effect and presumes that concern felt from the people around and a sense of belonging is considerably important for all social group members.
It is obvious that some theories support the idea that people are mostly similar in their reactions to the internal or external stimuli, while the others emphasize their difference on the basis of a stronger or weaker manifestation of various needs. To my mind, the particular needs of a person are strongly connected with the circumstances, upbringing, and education. However, each of the theory is important in understanding how motivation is formed, developed, strengthened, or weakened. Such knowledge is important not only in the working conditions of the manager and executives but also in the daily life of all social beings. For instance, understanding of the concept of motivation is quite useful for the personal planning of the effective schedule arrangement and defining the proper steps and goals on the way to the personal success and happiness. Understanding the importance of motivation can also be useful to reach the best results in interpersonal relations as well as children upbringing. Viewing the workplace, family, and other groups of people as social systems let one apply different knowledge on psychology, motivation, or cognition wisely and improve various spheres of life.