Safeguarding in Health and Social Care

Executive Summary

Mistreatment represents any deed, or failure to act, that consequences in a substantial breach of a susceptible person's social liberties, civil freedoms, bodily honour, and self-esteem or general good. The deeds are either intentional or unintentional, including carnal affairs or monetary dealings to which an individual has not or cannot authentically assent, or which are intentionally manipulative. Any being can commit abuse including other persons with disabilities. Violence becomes of ultimate concern when it is effected within a relationship of faith branded by dominant positions based on; lawful, expert or power status, imbalanced physical, fiscal or social influence; obligation for the individual's daily care; and gender, race, creed or sexual differences. Mistreatment may be bodily, expressive, carnal, abandonment, or monetary while the diverse types of self-harm may be self-inflicted injuries, drugs, and alcohol. The following report addresses why particular persons and groups may be susceptible to abuse and injury to self and others, further reviewing risk factors that may lead to the occurrence of ill-treatment and harm to self and others. Finally, the report analyses the impact of social and cultural factors on different types of maltreatment and /harm to self and others.


Case 1: Abuse, Factors and Contents


Among the persons susceptible to mistreatment are kids, teenagers, individuals with learning incapacities, service users with psychological issues, senior citizens, and individuals with dementia among others. The following paper represents an analysis of why particular individuals are prone to abuse and harm to self and others.

Adults Abuse

Adult mistreatment is defined as a solitary or recurrent deed or absence of suitable actions, happening within any relationship where there is a prospect of reliance, which causes injury or suffering to a susceptible individual. The reasons why the persons may be victims to cruelty and harm to self or cause those to others may be psychological or other inabilities, age or ailment, weak physical condition, or being incapable of defending self against substantial harm or abuse. 

Risk Factors for Adult Abuse

The danger factors associated with susceptible adults includes an absence of intellectual capacity, growing age, being physically reliant on others, and low self-esteem. In addition, it includes the previous account of mistreatment, undesirable experiences of revealing cruelty, social segregation, and lack of access to health and social amenities or superior facts that contribute to the risk factors.

Elderly Abuse

Seniors are helpless to mistreatment and harm. Aged people become frailer and are powerless to stand up to intimidation and or to fight back when confronted. Elders may not perceive, see or reason as obviously as they used to, leaving gaps for dishonest individuals to exploit them. Psychological or bodily illnesses may make them annoying for the persons who live with them. 

Risk Factors for Elder Abuse

Risk elements are defined as familiarities, conducts, features of lifestyle or surroundings, or individual physiognomies that escalate the likelihoods that elder maltreatment will happen. It becomes problematic to take care of an elder who has numerous diverse wants, and old age brings with it susceptibilities and reliance. Both the strains of caregiving and the desires of the elder can generate circumstances in which mistreatment is more probable to occur.

Categories of Elder Abuse

Risk factors are corroborated by considerable proof, for which there is undisputed or near-unanimous backing from some studies. This assembly comprises living provisions, social seclusion, dementia, and innate individualities of abusers. The other group entails probable danger factors and may involve sex, an affiliation of the victim to the culprit, character features of victims, and race. The last group includes disputed risk factors that comprise bodily injury of the older individual, victim reliance, and caregiver strain, and intergenerational transmission.

Children and Young People Abuse

Children and youth are often susceptible to a variety of causes comprising paucity, incapacity, substance abuse, bodily or psychological ailment, or because of other difficulties within the household. Snags may comprise quarrels and insistent fight with or between paternities or carers, mistreatment and abandonment, or living with the effects of other glitches such as paternal, substance abuse, psychological health complications, or home abuse. 

Risk Factors Associated with Children and Young People

Various factors exist that add to the infant and youth mistreatment and may be classified as parental, ecological, and teen factors. Familial aspects entail a parent was molesting the child, parentages with an upbringing of viciousness when developing up, alcoholic parents, and impractical hopes on children and young people. Besides, parents with the psychological ailment and abusive affairs add to risk factors. Environmental factors entail poverty, family violence, household pressure, congestion, and living with a non-biological adult. The child risk factors include sickly or unwelcome child, teen's incapacity, being a product of an abusive relationship, and lack of connection between the kid/young person and the parent.

The Impact of Social and Cultural Factors on Different Types of Abuse

Social discernments of aged patients may vary according to communal or cultural customs, and these perceptions may be causative factors to elder mistreatment. In numerous societies, the view of elderly women that live alone is unfortunate. Women may be blamed for doing sorcery, or may be compelled to wed. Moreover, they may be mistreated for alleged faults or offenses that led to living alone. In other societies, elders of either sex may be perceived as a liability on the nation's capitals. This discernment may result in the cruelty of diverse types, mainly fiscal as the abuser defends the cruelty as reimbursement for this burden. Susceptible persons may also be regarded harshly in some societies due to deteriorating bodily health or incapacitating circumstances. Conferring to culture, in communities where it is seen ordinary to have groups living disjointedly, bringing an elder relation into a household may be regarded as a liability and intensify stress levels. Enlarged populaces have also backed to degrade children, youngsters, and the elderly as wealth becomes rarer thereby causing abandonment and mistreatment. Mostly, overall populace upsurge within a society may have related pejorative effects on susceptible people.


In conclusion, the different persons prone to cruelty includes children, teens, adults, and aged people. Given susceptibility, there exist various risk factors that may lead to circumstances of abuse and harm to self or others. The factors range from the deficiency in psychological capability, growing age, being substantial reliance on others, and low self-worth. Also, preceding history of cruelty, adverse experiences of revealing abuse, social segregation, and in access to health and social amenities or excellent facts among others. Finally, social and cultural factors affect various types of ill-treatment differently. Social aspects include well-being, housing, training, paucity, social segregation and shortcomings, and networks of sustenance. Cultural factors in consideration include traditions, discrimination, and belief.

Case 2: Speech

"Ladies and gentlemen, in matters concerning those susceptible to abuse, various laws and strategies have been enacted to that effect. The present legislations and policies have numerous strengths and flaws regarding those helpless to abuse. The regulations and rules are intended to protect persons, groups, and defenceless adults from mistreatment. Among the legislations and guidelines are The Care Standard Act 2000, Confidentiality Policy, Whistle Blowing Policy, Physical Intervention Policy, and Complaint Procedure in Care Home. 

Whistle Blowing Policy is the way to improve the legislation practices and is an independent choice to shape an improved strategy. However, in some cases, whistleblowing can generate confusion between the personnel and can reduce their drive and safety leading to worsening of the situation.

A Complaint Procedure is developed by work service, but, at the same time, most demented individuals will not be able to protest due to their disability. The CRB Check (Adult protection) and POVA will provide that the worker (candidate criminal offense report), say within a stated country A. When a foreign individual committed a crime in his/her home state, say B, CRB in the present country A will not reveal those wrongdoings.  The stated factors briefly describe the weakness of current legislations and policies relating to those vulnerable to abuse. In safeguarding of persons and groups susceptible to mistreatment, numerous crucial experts are involved.

The Residential Care Home Managers may manage employees openly or may use multiple direct overseers to guide the personnel. These agents must be acquainted with the activities of all the groups he/she oversees, but they do not require to be unsurpassed in any or all of the areas. It is more imperative for the leader to know how to manage the employees than to know how to do their work well. Managers should have adequate criteria and familiarity and no unscrupulous mention in Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) records. 

Another vital specialized figure is the Social care council in charge of cataloguing of all social care workforces. The board controls their behaviour and their preparation and supports the setting and sustaining of decent practice values. By possessing greater influences of operation in this sector, social care council should be extremely accountable for the better demeanour and service activities.

Care Assistants are also instrumental in ensuring the security of persons and groups helpless to abuse. This group of individuals are directly accountable groups who manage the objective group so they should be properly trained as per the council's expected criteria. Concerning the stated legislations and policies and the role of specialists involved in the safety of persons and groups exposed to abuse, it is, therefore, paramount to ensure that privileges of susceptible people are upheld. It is also imperative to improve on the current legislations' weaknesses to increase performance. Thank you."

Case 3: Training Booklet

Various working practices and strategies exist that are intended to lessen mistreatment in health and social care frameworks.

Working Practice

  • Verbal and oral Communication

Communication entailing the service provider and consumer, involved in their maintenance and sustenance, is essential if any prospect for injury and cruelty is to be curtailed. Care must be observed when sharing information to ensure it remains private. Printed records must be kept in protected places and only available to entitled individuals or those accountable for those communications.

  • Use of IT in Sharing Information among Professionals

Presently, health and social care establishments use computers to preserve data of the service operator. It is significant to ensure that data rests secure under the Data Protection Act of 1998. Vital statistics, mainly brochures of cruelties, are extremely delicate cases, and exposure of this information can harm victims. Thus, this information should be safely encrypted. Any records exchange between experts must be brought to the awareness to the responsible or involved persons afore sharing.

  • Anti-oppressive Practice

Concerning assisting and protecting adults from cruelty, vital information should be availed to those responsible. Adult Protection measures are instituted to make sure that no one is mistreated. Therefore, before knowing the culprits, it is illegal to assume them.

  • Anti-discriminatory Practice

Everybody should ensure care in circumventing any biased practice when classifying, broadcasting, and acting to shield the vulnerable individuals from mistreatment. A person's legitimate right presupposes that when probing any instance of cruelty involving them, they should be free from any culpability and misjudgement.

Framework of Assessment

The aim of the structure of valuation is defending susceptible individuals. There are diverse types of structures that safeguard individuals from abuse. Hiring becomes imperative since the appropriate choice of workers can decrease mishandling in numerous ways.


  • Working in partnership with service user

Care sector organizations operating in conglomerates are the only fragment of the general approach to defending helpless adults from cruelty. Empowering service users to identify abuse and know how to alert others represent another vital tactic.

  • Strategy between professional and within organization

Operating in partnership is also critical, particularly when the service user is accessing several diverse services. Actual communication between experts and establishments is essential in guaranteeing the security of the service user. Communicating facts about modifications, significant happenings, and actions ensures that all those convoluted with backing the service user are checking their welfare to prevent abuse.

  • Decision-making process and forums

Native authority social service sectors are accountable for adult safety and have set adult defines forum. In addition, the local policy and practice will define the judgment making process in an instance where supposed or tangible mistreatment requires inquiry.

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  • Case Conferences

Case conference becomes essential in averting abuse by bringing individuals together to share their opinions and deliberate on their work. It should be a medium for persons to discourse their anxieties, voice their moods and concerns and support each other. It is also a tool for establishing prospective intervention.

  • Complaint Procedures

Listed health and social care service providers are required by the law to produce a complaints procedure, stipulating how amenity users, caregivers or victims can protest about the services. The process usually entails the grievance being probed or responded to first by the service provider. Although if the protest is made to CQC review, the CQC may resolve to carry out an inquiry itself.

  • Whistleblowing

Whistleblowing typically entails an individual making open some features of a group or association, which he/she feel is incorrect, hazardous, lacking or otherwise necessitating setting correct through public attention. The move entails informing a third party, apart from associates or the owner, about misconduct. Whistleblowing is a noble practice, but it also has some drawbacks where some people avoid such moves due to fear of retaliation. Communication and operating in partnership is essential in lessening abuse in health and social care. 

Possible Improvements to the Stated Working Practices and Strategies

The use of IT in data exchange is safer than customary paperwork. Besides making fastest service, the usage of technology is also significant in many other aspects. Verbal communication between caregivers should remain private. Anti- domineering and anti-discriminatory practices lessen likelihoods of further mistreatment. The framework of Assessment demonstrates how to evaluate service user or gauge workers before joining care occupation. Operating jointly with user service aids to stay closer to service operator and offer the chance to distinguish their wants and requests. Multi-agency cooperation is vital in protecting susceptible adults from mishandling, which is the issue in one agency.


Abuse is common among various individuals and may be caused by different risk factors. The vulnerable individuals may be children and young people, adults, and the elderly. Social and cultural factors affect different types of abuse in many ways. Social factors may include health, housing, education, poverty, and social exclusion among others while the cultural factors entail ethnicity, discrimination, and religion. Though with unmistakable strengths, the current legislations and policies also have some weaknesses relating to the protection of vulnerable individuals. Various professionals are tasked differently in the protection of persons and groups vulnerable to abuse. Working practices like written and oral communication, use of IT in sharing information among professionals, anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practice assist in minimizing breach in health and social care context. Strategies that play similar role include working in partnership with service users, between professionals and within organizations, decision-making processes and forums, and case conferences among others. The factors have numerous strengths and weaknesses, and there exist ways to improve them.

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