Descriptive Statistics
Using the attached DATA excel files prepare the following:
1. Determine the number of boys and girls in the class and create a bar graph or pie chart to display the information.
No. 
gender 
Number 
1 
male 
14 
2 
female 
7 
Total no of students 
21 
Pie chart representing the number of students represented by gender.
2. Calculate the mean, median, and mode for the Math, Reading, and Writing report card grades for the class.
Post Project 

Homework/Assignments 
Report Card  
No. 
Name 
gender 
Absences 
Discipline 
Math 
Reading 
Writing 
Math 
Reading 
Writing 











1 
Alex 
M 
6 

94 
92 
96 
B 
B 
B 
2 
Anthony 
M 
22 

73 
87 
83 
C 
B 
C 
3 
Brooke 
M 
2 
X 
60 
50 
55 
C 
D 
D 
4 
Carmen 
F 
0 

100 
100 
100 
A 
A 
A 
5 
Christina 
F 
new 
X 
90 
90 
90 
B 
B 
B 
6 
Douglas 
M 
1 
X 
83 
92 
83 
B 
B 
B 
7 
Jorge 
M 
4 
X 
75 
68 
72 
C 
C 
C 
8 
Joshua 
M 
5 

88 
88 
86 
B 
B 
B 
9 
Kim 
M 
2 

99 
100 
100 
A 
A 
A 
10 
Latisha 
F 
0 

100 
92 
100 
A 
B 
B 
11 
Li 
M 
1 

100 
99 
100 
A 
A 
A 
12 
Olga 
M 
new 
X 
33 
43 
58 
F 
F 
F 
13 
Rachel 
F 
2 

94 
100 
94 
A 
A 
A 
14 
Robert 
M 
42 

62 
61 
64 
F 
D 
F 
15 
Rupert 
M 
4 
X 
66 
62 
61 
C 
D 
D 
16 
Sara 
F 
3 

91 
97 
97 
B 
A 
A 
17 
Seth 
M 
0 

94 
92 
97 
B 
B 
B 
18 
Sheetal 
F 
0 

99 
98 
100 
A 
A 
A 
19 
Tawayna 
F 
16 
X 
78 
69 
73 
C 
C 
D 
20 
Wayne 
M 
1 

98 
100 
100 
A 
B 
A 
21 
William 
M 
new 

81 
98 
90 
C 
A 
B 




MEAN 
84.67 
84.81 
85.38 
B 






MEDIAN 
88 
92 
90 
B 






MODE 
92 
100 
100 
B 


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Determine if there is or is not a normal distribution for the Math, Reading, and Writing report card grades.
Statistics Results 
Math 
Reading 
Writing 




Mean 
83.38095238 
85.0476 
86.1905 
Standard Error 
3.833111499 
3.8788 
2.89796 
Median 
88 
92 
90 
Mode 
92 
100 
100 
Standard Deviation 
17.56552359 
17.7749 
13.2801 
Sample Variance 
308.547619 
315.948 
176.362 
Kurtosis 
2.626160315 
0.5588 
0.4531 
Skewness 
1.488506551 
1.2094 
0.8656 
Range 
69 
60 
42 
Minimum 
31 
40 
58 
Maximum 
100 
100 
100 
Sum 
1751 
1786 
1810 
Count 
21 
21 
21 
Confidence Level (95.0%) 
7.995730453 
8.09104 
6.04504 
From the Descriptive, statistics results shown in the table below, the data provided does not have normal distribution. The Math, Reading and Writing report cards data have a high standard errors of 3.83, 3.87 and 2.89 respectively, indicating a high variation in the data. The sample variance is also high 308.5, 315.9, and 176.3 respectively. Variance is the measure of relative mean of the data, showing how far the data is a measure of dispersion. In this case, high variance is an indication that the data is random and is much spread over a large area. On the other hand, if the variance were low it would indicate that the data is closely related. Therefore, high variance of the data is an indication that the data is highly skewed. Furthermore, the data also has a high standard deviation, indicating that the data is significantly a bias. This is because standard deviation is a measure of how on average the data falls away from the mean. It has similar interpretation as the high variance as it is computable from calculation of the square root of variance, therefore, since it has its square rooted, it is less susceptible to outliers.
Create a scatter plot diagram illustrating the Reading scores for the class.
Analyze the purpose of the descriptive statistics used.
The descriptive statistics used to analyze this data summarizes the data to a more meaningful manner, with reference to the students marks. The descriptive statistics determine the patterns arising from the data, but the patterns are only restricted to drawing conclusions from the data and not beyond the data. With raw data, it is difficult to visualize the inference of the data, but with the use of descriptive statistics, it is possible to interpret and visualize the data in a more meaningful manner. In this case, descriptive statistics gives the chance to present the data in a more meaningful way, giving the chance for simpler interpretation of the data. For example, from the data, there are 21 students, and the interest is in the overall performance of the students in different subjects. The interest could rely on the overall distribution of the marks in different subjects. With the use of descriptive statistics it is possible to [resent the data in graphical form making it easier to interpret the data. descriptive statistics was used in the data as a measure of central tendency of the data. it was used to simply describe the patterns of the marks scored by the class in different subjects form the lowest to the highest.
The median, mode and the mean was used as the measures of the central tendencies. It was used also to summarize the data by describing the spread of the score. For example, from the mean of the students results, used to measure the general performance of the students in different subjects. The measures of spread aid in summarizing the spread of the score, including the range, standard deviations and variance of the data. In a quantitative study, there are many manageable forms of data needing description, as it reduces the data into simpler form. Describing the large set of observations with a singular indicator to run the data makes the interpretation of the data distorted losing the significance of the data. Calculating the average of the data does not give the overall interpretation of the data. Therefore, with the use of these statistics, it is possible to interpret the data in more than form. This is because descriptive statistics provide powerful summary and interpretation of the data enabling the possibility of comparison of the data in many forms.
With the use of univariate analysis, it is possible to determine distribution of the data, the central tendency, and the dispersion of the data. Distribution of the data is the frequency of individual values for a given variable, in this case, the scores of the students with reference to different subjects. There is a direct relationship between student absences and Math grades as the students absent for more times performed badly. The student with the least grade of F in Math was absent from class for fortytwo lessons, while the students that did not miss the classes performed well.