Running head: QUESTIONS-ANSWERS 1
According to IDEA, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disorder experienced by individuals on various levels of their social life. They have different abnormal sensory responses to ordinary events, such as reaction to noise or emotions. Because of this, individuals with ASD have different characteristics. In fact, individuals with ASD are categorized into levels Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 based on their challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors (Powell & Driver, 2013, Section 9.3).
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There are certain vital difficulties that children with ASD might have. For example, some of them have the lack of social skills. As a result, they avoid eye contact and have difficulty recognizing faces and reading emotions (Powell & Driver, 2013, Section 9.3). This characteristic sometimes deprives them from establishing peer relations. In addition, there are individuals who have repetitive or obsessive behavior. For instance, they may use limited language in repetitive way or constantly perform stereotypical body gestures.
There are also several academic characteristics that some children with ASD might exhibit. IDEA 2004 defines autism as a developmental disability in which a child has problems communicating, verbally and nonverbally, to a degree that affects his/her academic performance (Powell & Driver, 2013, Section 9.3). However, in accordance with the Autism Awareness video, they may demonstrate specific interest with numbers or objects. Therefore, some children with this syndrome can be good at mathematics.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Table
Strategies for Students with SLD that will Prove Helpful
Strategies for Students with ID that will Prove Helpful
Strategies for Students with EBD that will Prove Helpful
Individual Strategies for Students with ASD
High Functioning ASD
1.Special education services
2. Timely diagnosis
3. Response to intervention (RTI)
4. Progress monitoring
1. Academic and behavioral instruction in naturalistic settings
2. Specialized programs
3. Application of strategies for students with SLD
4. Usage of simple language
5. Written or visual prompts and reminders
6. Timer in the classroom
7. Monitoring of student progress and appropriate feedback
8. Written choices
9. Music in the class
1. IQ test
2.Adaptive behavior assessment
3. Individualized or small-group instructions
4. Self-contained classrooms or specialized schools
5. Explicit instructions from teachers
1. Functional behavioral assessment
2. Behavior intervention plan
3. Positive behavioral interventions and support
1. Education in self-containing setting
2. Specialized schools or classrooms
3. Adoption of teaching strategies for students with ID and EBD
IFSP and Early Intervention
Individual family service plan (IFSP) is linked to early intervention services. The IFSP is framed by the family members concerns and priorities for the child and their conceptualization of his or her needs (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 794). Families can significantly influence the educational process of their children. Nevertheless, parents need to agree in writing the plan with school personal that can also come up with an alternative, mutually acceptable plan (Wolraich, 2003, p. 85). There are different modes of family support; that is why children in my community would be able to access various early intervention services.
Firstly, there are family-centered services, primarily focused on the family. Rather than intervene directly with the child, family-centered services focus on providing supports that will increase or enhance the capacity of the family to better meet the childs needs (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 794). Of course, families are all different. Hence, this approach is quite flexible. Flexibility is necessary in order to remain responsive to the individual family, as well as to a broader constituency (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 794).
Family members are always affected by individual members, who suffer from disorder. In this case, sometimes they need to provide special services to their children. However, there are other intervention services. For instance, there are peer tutoring and buddy programs. Peer tutors provide instructional support, needed assistance, additional direct instruction, and training in communication (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 800). Thus, children will be able to communicate with their peers and learn the school material.
Group formation is the third option. The formation of groups around specific characteristics and interest enables student with purposeful access to one another (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 800). Such interactions promote quick social inclusion of children in the academic environment. Another possible service is a natural support beyond school. Nonetheless, it has to be carefully planned and then implemented.
There are other effective early intervention methods. For example, augmentive communication and assistive technology might be successful in some cases. Augmentive alternative communication is an integrated group of components, including the symbols, aids, strategies and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 808). Assistive technology can also enhance communication between children. It is defined as any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase functional capabilities of individuals (Farenga & Ness, 2005, p. 809). Therefore, it can be any mechanic instrument, such as computer.
Overall, in my community, all of these five services methods can be provided by schools as well as hospitals for children with specific needs starting from the very young age.
Young families and their children need to create a sense of belonging in their community. In fact, the notion that young children with disabilities and their families are full members of the community reflects societal values about promoting opportunities for development and learning, and a sense of belonging for every child (Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children [DEC] & National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], 2009). Of course, children with disabilities are usually protected by law. Nevertheless, law cannot guarantee promotion of social values in community. As a result, it is up to community to create a sense of membership.
It is essential to create proper school environment that can strengthen childrens skills and knowledge. For instance, schools should be equipped with essential technology that can make learning material easy to understand. At the same time, each school ought to hire professional psychologists and medical staff to work with children with disabilities. However, families are also to take active part in educating their children. They should be responsible for controlling their childs progress in school. In addition, they can ask teachers to develop a home-schooling plan that can help their children increase knowledge and keep up with others in the class.
There are still some concerns about working with exceptional learners. For example, sometimes children with any learning or health disabilities are not able to produce same results as other children in the classroom. In this case, I would recommend creation of self-containing classrooms. These classes need only to be focused on specific subjects that are hard to understand for children. Mathematics, physics or biology, for instance, can be taught separately for children with disabilities.