History of Red Cross
The establishment and foundation of the Red Cross began in 1859 by Henri Dunant. The main incentive that brought him to the idea of creating such organization was the Battle of Solferino. Dunant witnessed that during the 15 hours of fight more than 40,000 people were wounded. In cooperation with people from Castiglione, he worked for three days to provide medical care for the wounded.
In 1862, when Dunant was in Geneva, he published a book that described that horrible battle under the title A Memory of Solferino. The main focus of the book was the advancement of the idea that in every country there should be founded a society, which would be aimed at assisting military medical services in providing the necessary help. Several years later, an influential lawyer and the President of the Society of Public Welfare in Geneva, Gustave Moynier, became interested by the idea. This resulted in the fact that in 1863, representatives of 16 countries modified resolutions of the Geneva Committee. During the conference, the States that belonged to Geneva Committee received the role of pioneers in introducing private societies that would assist military medical services. In 1864, a Diplomatic Conference was organized in Switzerland, where representatives of 12 states were invited. The First Geneva Convention (for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field) was signed on August, 22 and was obligatory to follow by all other countries.
Founders of the Red Cross aimed at creating National Societies. After ten years of the First Geneva Convention, there were 22 national societies in Europe. The movement soon started gathering momentum on a broader scale, and more countries were included. Also, during the First Geneva Convention, it was agreed on the symbols that workers of the Red Cross will be differentiated by. During the First World War, the Red Cross and Red Crescent were called for assistance on the large scale. Then, the reorganization of the Red Cross was initiated by Henry Davidson. He stressed that the Red Cross should aim at acting in the public health sector. Consequently, in 1919, the League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent was founded with headquarters in Geneva. After the World War II, the Red Cross initiated the creation of Convention on protecting the civilian population during wars. As a result, four conventions were adopted. Since 1945, the Red Cross acted in compliance with its seven fundamental principles, which remained unchanged until 1965. From that time, the Red Cross operated in almost every corner of the world with a variety of humanitarian programs.
Originally, the emblem was in the form of a red cross on a white background. Such emblem was adopted in honor of Switzerland (where the flag has reversed colors) (Wheeler, 2003). As a result of the implied religious context, some countries refused to accept the emblem. For instance, only one decade after the First Geneva Convention, there were disputes over the symbols that the Red Cross was to use. During the Crimean War, Turkey asserted that it would use the emblem of the Red Crescent. From that time, most of Islamic countries started using the Red Crescent emblem. Such decision emanates from the fact that the cross is the symbol of the Christian church. There were also attempts to receive public recognition for the Iranian emblem Red Lion and Sun. However, the emblem was revoked and the Red Crescent was adopted instead.
The recent search for the new emblem may cause serious controversies around the world. However, because of intensive globalization processes such necessity in changing emblems, which were initially supposed to represent only some regions of the world, is now inevitable.
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According to Ong (2012), Secondary orality is founded on though it departs from the individualized introversion of the age of writing and print (p. 285). In other words, secondary orality is based on indirect means of communication. In the communication theory, such means of communication are called communication channel. While all other parameters of the communication model (such as addresser, addressee) remain the same, the communication channel is the key difference between the primary and secondary orality. Formally, the key difference between the primary and secondary orality lies in the fact that primary orality is based on oral speech while secondary orality has writing as its core element. However, the development of modern communication technologies has complicated the meaning of these two notions. If, for instance, a voice is recorded and then listened by the audience it may be unclear to what type of orality it belongs. Therefore, in differentiating the two notions, the second parameter should be taken into consideration: the actual relationship between the addresser and the addressee. In the abovementioned case, the listener has no actual relationship with the speaker. Therefore, the secondary orality occurs. If the addresser was not recorded, but was physically present while giving his/her speech, the primary orality would occur.
Regardless of the communication channel, it might be still difficult to differentiate primary orality from secondary orality. Ong (1982) argues that secondary orality is both remarkably like and remarkably unlike praimary orality. Like primary orality, secondary orality has generated a strong group of sense... But secondary orality generates a sense for groups immeasurably larger than those of primary oral culture [Marshall] McLuhans global village (p. 104).
Based on Ongs argument, another parameter may assist in determining the differences between primary and secondary orality: number of audience. If primary orality, that is, narrative speech, is limited in the number of speakers because of on the physical basis, then, secondary orality does not have such a limitation. The establishment and development of mass media and Internet have overcome geographical barriers thus bringing information/ message to the large number of people. Sometimes, TV or radio news may be incorrectly referred to as primary orality, because the information is spread orally. In this case, the number of audience should be taken into consideration.
On the other hand, Bounegru (2008) asserts that written communication may turn into a sort of primary orality. Her subject is microblogging and Facebook. In those environments, people communicate by means of writing, or, rather to say, by means of typing. Meanwhile, this cannot be called a written communication, while it has many characteristic features of orality. It is spontaneous; however, maybe a little bit not as much spontaneous, as real orality. Meanwhile, it takes a little more time to type sentences, than it takes to speak them. This is why, in many cases, words are being contracted and it forms a separate sort of communication, which, on the one hand, may be called secondary orality, however on the other hand, may be recognized as a separate kind of communication. It is somewhere between secondary and primary orality.
In modern world, it is extremely difficult to find cases of primary morality. The impact of communication technologies is overwhelming, and it is superseding traditional forms of communication. Nevertheless, there still exist some traditional forms of communicating that require primary orality only. These may include university lectures, sermons and some others.
- New Media M.A. Research Blog | Media Studies, University of Amsterdam | Secondary Orality in Microblogging