Writers' Choice - Political Sciences
The struggle for democracy and human rights in the world is an integral part of US foreign policy. However, many countries believe that America, protecting human rights abroad, sometimes takes too involved in international affairs and regional conflicts. The ability to influence positively the processes of democratization in the world has always been a strong point of America. Nevertheless, lately, international experts often criticize the US administration. They call to the fact that, even in the heat of the fight against terrorism, the Government must not forget about the enduring ideals on which were based in the United States.
Personality is both subject and object of politics. However, some people are more manifest political activity, others - less, and some even try to avoid involvement in the political process. Some seek the approval of the existing political system and show a constructive political behavior, while others are taking measures aimed at the overthrow of its destructive position and demonstrate. There are those who can easily adapt to any political regime, and all authority. Such a diversity of political behavior is largely determined by the nature of political socialization. The involvement of youth into the process of political life of the community is significant for the stable development and prosperity of every country.
Personal political socialization process
Political socialization of personality had always been a two-way process in which various types of political actors affect the identity, on the one hand; on the other hand, with time itself becomes able to influence the political life of society (Abraham & Perry, 1998). The individual is always in conflict with society, repressing the biological impulses and instincts, which he is born. Socialization is curbing these destructive impulses to society. Socialization is the inclusion of an individual in a social system through the training of social roles, constant adaptation to the prevailing social values and standards of behavior. In fact, it is a constructive process. It involves creating the system settings for social relations.
Political socialization of personality takes place in the course of its interaction with society. The relation of economic, political and other interests of man and society, the citizen and the state causes the nature of this interaction. Different combinations of interests determines the specific type or model of political socialization (Lane, 1995). By the type of political socialization is meant a set of values established patterns of interaction of the individual and the political institutions of the society. It is influenced by a combination of factors: the level of historical development of society, economic conditions, political culture, social structure, the dominant agents of political socialization, and others. With high probability, one can say, that what type of political socialization of the person prevails in society, and such a state of society, and vice versa, what society is, so is the dominant type of political socialization (Greenberg & Page, 2014)
Harmonic type is characterized by not only the adoption of a person existing political order and power, but also respect for the state, the political system as a whole (Greenberg & Page, 2014). Personality is viewed as a conscious and voluntary participant in the political life, the active subject of politics. Here there is harmony between the government and the individual, it is assumed by the mutual implementation of rules, regulations and responsibilities: a person before the authorities and the government to the individual (Greenberg & Page, 2014). It is clear that this type is only possible in conditions of sufficient social homogeneity, civil society and the rule of law. Essentially, this is the ideal type of political socialization, providing conflict-free development of the political system and the individual as the subject of politics.
From the traditional institutions of my personal political socialization, the most effective are the system of education and the family. The educational system carries out the functions of socialization both directly and indirectly. The direct effect is characterized by the fact that the education system provides me with direct knowledge of the policy and the role that I play in it, as well as more specific idea of the political system, political institutions, and political relations. In addition, educational institutions transmit my existence in society political values and attitudes, and are able to form and strengthen attachment to the political system and its symbols (flag, emblem, and anthem). The emotional loyalty to "their" political system and forms the initial patriotic feelings had formed in school. Indirectly, education system carries my political socialization through equipping its non-political knowledge, skills and abilities. Education makes me generally more informed, active and responsible, but also increases the sense of importance of my own participation in politics. Political scientists have identified a relationship between my personal level of education of the individual and political activity. With the development of my education, the level of my political informatization and level of involvement into the political life of society.
Political activity - activities of political groups or individuals associated with the desire to change the political or socioeconomic order and the relevant institutions. In its broadest sense, it is manifested in revolutionary changes in the company or its reform. At the individual level, it is a combination of those forms of manifestations of human life, which expressed its desire to participate actively in politics, defending their rights and interests. This option is the goal and ideal of the so-called "activist" political culture prevalent in Western democracies.
The attitude to voting
The family has a major impact on the formation of attitudes toward authority. Nevertheless, despite the fact that in recent times there is a strengthening of the family in the process of political socialization of youth, I form my political preferences, regardless of the parents. Thus, the example of electoral activity shows that the political attitudes of the older generation directed to participate in elections, stop play or play poorly. The youth age group (14-28 years) is socialized into the mainstream two-track process. On the one hand, the absorption of the individual fixed certain norms, values, role expectations and other requirements of the political system. On the other hand, shows how a person selectively develops these traditions and representation, consolidating them in one or another form of political behavior. Young people, when confronted with the reality, sometimes-cruel circumstances, aware of the role of knowledge and education, committed to it (Greenberg, O’Loughlin & Staeheli, 2004). This is one of the most characteristic features inherent in youth. The combination of the desire to search for new information, the attainment of political rights, the legal status of capacity and age, physical maturity and achievement with little experience and flexibility, variety of consciousness makes the potential energy resources and motivation of young people a powerful political force (Greenberg, O’Loughlin & Staeheli, 2004). Therefore, almost all the political entities: the state, political parties and movements, churches and other religious organizations, individual leaders, the media objectively interested to have an impact on young people. Gradually the person becomes passive and active voting rights, he becomes a member of the public organizations and movements and political parties. For 30 years, a person already possesses considerable experience and knowledge to the orientations in political relations.
The country's future depends on each of us. The youth have to participate in the elections, because we are a great way of life, the beginning of which we now stand. Therefore, it is from our active citizenship depends on the country in which we live and work. Election of the function of political socialization of the population, since the realization of citizens' electoral rights, the establishment of electoral institutions, widespread use of the media for agitation and propaganda. At the same time, the party programs and platforms in one degree or another, directly or indirectly contribute to both political education of the masses, and create conditions for the active involvement of citizens and their associations in the political process.
I believe that young people should go to the polls. From the participation of each depends not only on the life of a particular person, but the whole state. Even one vote may affect the election results. It is not just a declaration of intent within the system. This awareness of our own importance within the state. Political socialization is not completed adolescence or adolescence. It is not completed and a passport of a citizen (Lane, 1995). This is only the formal appearance of the fixation of minimum civil rights and obligations of the grown man. Political socialization continues in various forms, all life. However, over time, its steps and stages are determined not age-related changes associated with the structure of the individual, and with the development of a new social and political experience, assimilation of new social and political roles, and personal involvement in political activities. The political picture of the world, down a person, over the years varies greatly, however, its core, "nuclear" options are recorded in the structure of personality (Greenberg & Page, 2011). In cases of dysfunction of the political system, hampering the transmission of political values to new generations and misleading already formed citizens in the event of its reform or even a complete collapse of mature citizens’ return to the base early submissions received during the early, primary socialization. I believe that in any situation you need only come out of their beliefs and attitudes, whether it is relationships or politics.
It is impossible to imagine the process of life of an individual without cooperation with the political system. Moreover, it is very hard to underestimate the role of young people in the process. The personal attitude to the governmental processes and elections reflects the future of the whole system. In the process of interaction of the individual with the political system, there are two series of processes. On the one hand, the system reproduces itself, recruiting and training, adapting to all the new members. The political system in this process is the role of the political mechanism for preserving the values and objectives of the system, makes it possible to preserve the continuity of generations in politics. On the other hand, the demands of the political system are translated into the structures of the individual psyche, become political personality traits, or, in other words, the properties of the individual as a political incarnation of the individual. Therefore, it is a process of interaction between the individual and the government, the purpose of which is to adapt the individual to the system, turning it into a citizen's identity. Consequently, political socialization forms the political consciousness of the individual and his political behavior (Greenberg, O’Loughlin & Staeheli, 2004). The process turns me into the member of the governmental system.
In the political sphere, in addition to the dominant political culture, there are subcultures and opposition. Political socialization is a process of inclusion of the individual in the political system by equipping it with the experience of the system and arising on its basis the state, enshrined in the political culture. I create my personal views on the intersection of these competing political trends favoring one and rejecting the other. Nevertheless, the main thing is that in the course of my personal socialization becomes a full-fledged subject of the political process, capable of protecting my personal and group interests.