Capitalism, relations of power and cultural politics in the study of gender
Gender is a study that has gained a lot of interest globally. The topic has been in discussion on different platforms in the world. Due to the sensitivity and nature of the debate, much influence is always seen from cultural politics and capitalism. Because of the many issues that arise with this debate, the female gender has been on the danger. From past years, families would sell their daughters for material things or for the purposes of financing their debts. In the twenty first century, some of the families still sell their daughters in order to maintain their rice fields, which have led to generation of much pressure from the public Crenshaw, 24-36). Such cases are very common with the parents of Thai Province who are not educated and this largely contributes to the problem. In proving the morality of selling daughters, Bale argues that it is better to sell a daughter for food than selling them for purposes of television sets. In his argument, consumer capitalism and gender inequality have had a great influence on the issue. For unknown reasons, the demand for human laborers and organs has been on the increase, which is alarming. This has led to the exploitation of certain females in different careers such as nannies, house cleaners, and commercial workers (Crenshaw, 24-36).
Power is another major influencing factor on the issue of gender. It is said that females were mistreated in the emergence of war brides and were referred to as third world female bodies. The so-called first world male consumers were the ones mistreating the women and this was commonly known as the military prostitution. In reference to the war between Korean and Vietnam, the young girls seem to suffer from the trade that highly affects the less powerful communities. In this case, money seems to be the determinant of the young girls’ fate. In case the family is poor, it is very likely that the young girl will be traded. On the other hand, she might get lucky if the family is wealthy. In addition, the third world women who in this case refer to the poor and powerless women are expected to take care of the white professional women children who are also adopted from the third world women. With this comparison, it is evident that the there is a great imbalance between the two classes of women that result from differences in power. In this paper, capitalism, relations of power and cultural politics in the study of gender will be in extensive discussion and its effects on the global world (David, 58-64).
The study of gender faces much influence from capitalism and the state have less power on this issue. The private individuals largely control the issue and face fewer restrictions from their governments, which is the case globally. With historical reference, the western altruism has had great impact on the exploitation of the female gender. In addition, the domestic caretakers do not only face exploitation on physical labor purposes but also emotional labor. The capitalists in this case who are the adopters exploit the affection of the desperate women in taking care of the adopted children (McCall & Crenshaw, 22-26). Therefore, the private personalities are wholly responsible and in control of the adoption and exploitation of the women. Currently, the major adopters take advantage of the gender inequality and thus worsen the situation. However, states do not take responsibility of the problem and have no control over it; this makes it difficult for the case on gender. Therefore, capitalism in this case largely affects various types of labor power. The major affected labor type in this context is consumptive labor, where the community is organized as a supplement to capital (McCall & Crenshaw, 22-26).
In the recent past, the middle class white families are more in consolidation than any time before. In the same way, moral and family values have been on the increase that makes the parental value more important. Due to this development, the heterosexual and homosexual genders are coming out in the public unlike in the past years. However, in the twenty-first century, there are still various ways in which, the private personalities manipulate and exploit the different genders (Crenshaw, 24-36). The oppressors mainly perceive the same-sex orientation genders as weak and intimidate them in public. Due to the intimidation, people from this gender do not come out strongly to defend themselves from fear of criticism. For this reasons, they are continually oppressed and the manipulated by the oppressors (Crenshaw, 24-36).
Effects of power on the study of gender
The power imbalance that exists does influence the behavior of certain individuals in the society and treatment of the minor gender. The case is best illustrated in the film ‘Casa de los Babys’ that also highlights the emotional imbalances between the powerful and less powerful in the community. In most cases, the third world women work for the first world women who in this case are the rich white women from the North. Additionally, the rich women move to the poor countries that are less powerful purposely for adoption of children. From the film, a powerless woman who works for powerful women in a hotel feels sorrowful about her daughters’ adoption, however, she wishes her daughter were well (David, 58-64). On the contrary, the white powerful women seem to celebrate the poor woman sorrows. In this case, the poor woman represents the oppressed women the less powerful states globally and the things they go through. Their tribulation is a result of their financial state and inferior gender, as perceived in the community. On the other hand, the successful women in this case who are the white women represent the oppressive nature of the powerful nations. Despite being females, they oppress their fellow women and take away their children from them. From these actions, it is evident that power and race are the major factors contributing to the issue (David, 58-64).
In reference to the film, the biological mother of the child does not have the right to take care of their children. Mainly, the girl child is always at risk of adoption by the powerful personalities. In the study of gender, it is clear that the occasion takes place due to the biasness and inequality on gender that exists in the society globally. Power highly influences the study of gender (Chant & Gutmann, 269-275). Money is the source of power and thus it is easy to influence people, as they tend to respect the individuals of financial stability. In most cases, the oppressed female gender was unable to fight for their rights and the girl child since they did not have money. The powerful personalities could use the power of money to silence the powerless making it difficult for government intervention. The case reflects the relation of power to capitalism and the influence it has on the study of gender (Chant & Gutmann, 269-275).
Influence of cultural politics in the study of gender
In most cases, the political economy is reluctant on intervening in the issue of gender and the transnational adoptee. Likewise, culture of the people is also not ready to mediate on the issue of gender but plays a major role in enhancing the trade. With the increase in consumptive labor and exploitation of genders, there has been development in political emotions. Due to these politics, the most vulnerable still suffer stigmatization because of their dependency nature (David, 58). Political homophobia in postcolonial Namibia is the best representation for this case of politics of affection. Through numerous campaigns on political homophobia, the main target of the campaign group was lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender movements in the country. In so doing, the political leaders were manipulating this issue to silence their opponents although there were criticisms on this kind of leadership. With continuity and increase in homophobic debates, there was a development in belief that only whites are homosexuals and all Africans are heterosexuals (Currier, 111). In other empirical studies, they suggest that lesbians and gays originated from the west and this led to political homophobia in Namibia. With the increase in homophobia in the country, the LGBT were lacking independence and peace in the country that led them to fleeing into other countries. It is, therefore, evident that the stigma was largely affecting the genders and could not exercise their will or express their feelings. For this reason, politics of affection plays a major role in influencing the different types of gender and their behaviors. There is also a great relationship between power and culture politics in the study of gender (Currier, 111-115).
Firstly, the South West African people’s organization (SWAPO), that was leading the campaign on the political homophobia were seeking for power. Politics of homophobia was in great use due to the African race and their belief that they are all heterosexuals. Through manipulation of the gender issue and the belief of the Africans, it would be easier for the party to influence the people to vote them as leaders in the country. Therefore, they were politicizing the issue of gender and inflicting emotions on the people (Currier, 112). As the African culture dictates on heterosexuality, it would be easier for the party to persuade the people to stigmatize on LGBT. Political homophobia was deep rooted in the country to an extent that the president of Namibia, Sam Nujoma was threatening to deport all lesbians. Although there were individuals with strong personalities, for example, one woman who ignored the threats of being deported, it is clear that cultural politics are very influential. With reference to this, it is evident that there is a relationship between power and cultural politics in the study of gender. Namibia leaders through their power were able to manipulate the culture of Africans by politics of affection (Currier, 112).
Political homophobia has great consequences on the different genders and highly influences their behavior globally. South Africa suffers great consequences from stigmatization of the different genders through political homophobia. Due to the discrimination on individuals on gender basis, Namibians in South Africa moved back to their country with the promise of their leaders of equality. Consequently, the LGBT in Namibia are unable to access HIV/AIDS prevention, education, and treatment campaigns, especially in cases where the government is responsible for administering (Currier, 112). This is a consequence of fear of discrimination because of their gender. Discourse on homophobia is not only in political platforms but also in cultural platforms. In most or all the cases, individuals maintain the stand of heterosexism in their debates to avoid stigma. In the twenty-first century, people consider homosexuality as a taboo. Therefore, it is common globally for individuals and groups to use homophobia as a way of policing gender sexuality. Although homophobia is global, it is most common and this forms the basis of African nationalist masculinity (Currier, 113). The homophobic attitude has gained more ground in Namibia in the twenty-first century as leaders considers the gender as evil, unchristian, non-African and western. For these reasons, they suggest that the gender should be eradicated from the country. This makes it difficult for the diverse genders to survive in the country hence creating unfavorable environment (Currier, 113).
The study of gender has a diverse relationship in regards to power and cultural politics. Political leaders through use of power use homophobia in different ways. Most importantly, they use this controversial gender to push their agendas in the country. In most cases, they use the strategy in silencing of sexual diversity activists and political opponents. Through use of homophobia against the sexual diverse activists, they create animosity towards the activists among the settlers or people of a particular region (Currier, 115). A case study of such a case is South Africa where the national leaders and military used the strategy to silence and cause discrimination against the antiapartheid dissent. The national leaders and military were successful in achieving the goal through associating heterosexuality with masculinity of the military service. The use of homophobia strategy was in use by the leaders to destroy reputation of the activists. Same-sex orientation according to the African culture is a sign of weakness and thus the activists would not survive the humiliation. For this reason, they had to give in to the humiliation, therefore, the national leaders won (Currier, 116). Many leaders also use this strategy to divert the attention of the people from issues they consider as sensitive. One of the leaders who is said to have the use of homophobic strategy to divert attention of the public is President Mugabe. He was in constant use of the slogan in the late ninety’s and early millennium in diversion of the poor economic status of his country (Currier, 116). In reference to the above, it is clear that power and cultural politics highly influences the study of politics.
It is evident that capitalism and its relation to power and cultural politics greatly affect the study of gender. However, it is the responsibility of the oppressed to stand and fight for their rights. According to the traditions of America, it is the expectations of many that the gender in oppression will rise to protect their rights of freedom to express their feelings. Through the power of knowledge, the oppressed will be in a better position to educate their oppressors (Lorde, 1). For instance, it should be the responsibility of lesbians and gay to educate the heterosexuals. Parents on the other hand should take the responsibility of educating teachers on the culture of their children. This will prevent teachers from dismissing children because of their culture. Additionally, the black and middle class citizens should take the responsibility of addressing white oppressors on the values and rights of humanity (Lorde, 1-3). Through this, the oppressors who usually take advantage of gender will start owing their actions and take full responsibility of the actions. In addition, this will highly influence the study of gender. The oppressed should also learn the weaknesses of their oppressors and this will greatly help in reducing the intensity of the issue and the study of gender. Therefore, if the adopters feel that they should assist the poor girl child in accessing better living standards, they should finance their biological mother to take care of their own children. In doing this, the oppression of the girl child due to their perceived inferior gender will reduce (Chant & Gutmann, 269-275).
Power and the study of gender have a direct relationship in accordance to the context above. Therefore, misuse of power directly harms the different genders thereby affecting their lifestyle. To prevent this from happening, there should be direct conversations between the oppressed and oppressor gender. The discussions should be on a powerful platform that will contribute in addressing the nation and the whole worlds. The actions will prevent and discourage misuse of power and avoidance of responsibilities through intimidation of the minor gender. Even though power and cultural politics influences the study of gender, they do not cause separation and division in the community (Kolick, 23-27). Rather, refusal of leaders in authority to understand and recognize the differences that exist between the gender differences is the main cause of separation. Due to the pretence of people that they do not understand the gender differences, there are major isolations and stigmatization globally. The engine to the stigmatization is power and cultural politics that is very saddening. Through implementation of these factors, it will be possible to reduce the influence of power and cultural politics on the study of gender (Kolick, 23-27).
Conclusively, it is evident that the correlation of power and cultural politics has a great influence on the study of gender. Globally, the issue on gender has gained much development that affects the study. Power has a great contribution on gender issues and thus influences the lifestyle and behavior of various genders in the society. In some instances, political leaders use gender issues to silence and dominate over diverse-gender personalities. Homophobia is one of the commonly used slogans in political arenas to push political agendas. In Namibia, political leaders used the use of homophobia in silencing the diverse-gender activists and their opposition. However, their target was lesbians, gay, bisexuals and transgender movements in the country. The move highly affect ted the individuals of this gender, as they were afraid on their stay.
It also affected the study of gender as people could not come out clearly and comment on gender issues due to fear. Likewise, the South Africa leaders were using homophobia tactics to silence the diverse gender in their attempt to suppress the antiapartheid personalities. In addition, money power is in use in various regions of the world especially North Korea in silencing the poor individuals from telling the truth on the adoption of their children. Different people also maintain transsexual conversions to protect themselves from criticisms. However, the oppressed can reduce the effect of power and cultural politics on study of gender through rising to protect their rights. They can do this through educating the oppressors on their condition. This will largely contribute in benefiting the study on gender since people will speak and comment independently on the issue of gender. From the above, capitalism and its relation to power and cultural issues highly affects study of gender.