Globalization Study Guide 5
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1. In what ways do the ways in which global migration has been institutionalized around the globe display all four of the dimensions of globalization identified by Lechner: diffusion, interdependence, governance, and culture/consciousness?
On Global Governance, Lecher distinguished that the world countenances numerous issues, and there is no government that can handle any of them. This segment highlights a percentage of the foundations endeavoring to handle the different issues, for example, national monetary inconveniences that affect global markets, natural issues like global warming, and new advancements in the administration of global wellbeing. On the measurements of Culture, he distinguished that culture concentrate on its expressive or regularizing measurements.
Expressive (mainstream) culture incorporates media items, consumable merchandise that accept notable status as images of innovation or avant-gardism and garments styles starting precisely societies that get to be overall trends, et cetera. Standardizing society includes the qualities and objectives advanced by global partnerships and associations fetishistic consumerism and capital gathering, independence, and human rights, modern government and political interest, sexual orientation, and racial fairness. The interdependence measurement has gotten the best consideration, especially regarding the global prominence of American movies, network shows, and games shows. On diffusion analysis, a great many people move from creating to established social orders, with North America being an especially well-known destination. Somewhere around 1970 and 2000, the quantity of settlers who arrived in either the United States or Canada in any given year expanded from 13.0 to 40.8 million.
2. Factors that the theory of cumulative causation highlights to explain global migration and how each operate
Individual choice: Migrants weigh the costs and benefits of moving to a new country and it explains in part not only the larger flow of migrants from developing to developed countries but also the particular appeal migration has to unattached young men. The social networks in which people are embedded: Social ties also influence the decision to migrate the capacity of prospective migrants to raise the needed resources and the places to which they choose to relocate. Structural changes related primarily to the labor market: Introduction of new technologies which force peasants off their land or economic growth in developing countries which creates high levels of demand for workers in certain sectors act to both push people from one place and pull them to another. Actions of governments: The governments of many developing countries assist potential migrants by setting up registries of emigrants and agencies to help them prepare for the move.
3. According to Levitt (2012), what are the three features that distinguish a transnational village from other types of communities? According to Levitt and Jaworsky (2007), what impact has migrant transnationalism had in such domains as economics, politics, culture, and society?
The maintenance of social relations between migrants and home communities which transforms the lives of the residents of the home communities whether they migrate or not.
The provision of social remittances which includes ideas, behaviors and social capital that flow from the countries in which migrants live to the countries that sent them.
The existence of organizations that act across borders. For example The Miraflores Development Association.
Economics domain, migrant transnationalism not only contributes to the well-being of friends and family back home, it also allows migrants to invest in businesses in their home countries as they continue to work with their host countries.
Politics domain, migrant transnationalism promotes membership in political parties and associations in both host and home countries, It also promotes the lobbying of authorities in one country to influence the policies of the other and electoral participation Cultural domain, migrant transnationalism encourages the incorporation of cultural traits from home and host countries hence promoting globalization. Society area, migrant transnationalism affects gender relations but not in the same way. In some instances, it contributes to the liberation of women by providing them with opportunities to assume the role of breadwinner within the family. However, migrant transnationalism produces rigid gender hierarchies in an effort to protect women from what is alleged to be hostile and immoral influences mainly in host countries.
4. Why does Huntington fear that immigration will lead to a clash of civilizations in the United States? Why does Lechner believe that Huntingtons views on immigration are partly right but mostly wrong?
Huntington fears that immigration will lead to a clash of civilizations in the United States because most immigrants come from a single country, speak a particular language and occupy the major cities in the States. These immigrants tend to retain their original identities rather than take over the American character. They integrate so quickly in the American society in terms of language acquisition and intermarriages.
Lechner believes that Huntingtons views on immigration are partly right but mostly wrong as Immigration has increased tension in many countries forcing countries such as Netherlands, Germany, Britain, and France to introduce incorporation regimes.
5. What is an incorporation regime? How do the merger systems adopted by the governments of France, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands differ? How have they changed over time?
Incorporation Regimes are the policies and practices governments adopt to integrate immigrants into society.
France took an assimilation approach that relegates religion to the private sphere and exposes the children of immigrants to the county's secular republican values through the public education system.
Germany has held to an ethno cultural model of nationhood which restricts citizenship to individuals born of German parents.This meant that the immigrant children on German soil had been unable to claim citizenship, although laws passed since 1990 have made it somewhat easier for immigrants and their children to naturalize.
Britain has adopted a very firm approach toward the naturalization of immigrants but, unlike Germany, the country has also implemented a much more active multicultural approach towards the incorporation of immigrants into British society by recognizing different groups as ethnic minorities while at the same time extending the blessings of the welfare state to them.
Netherlands initially adopted a multicultural approach but when that approach contributed to ethnic segregation rather than integration, the country shifted course towards a more strict civic integration that imposed new language and financial requirements on newcomers as a way to foster internal integration.
6. What does the term absolute poverty refer to? Has poverty been on the decline or on the increase over the past 50 years?
Absolute poverty is the level of debt below which minimal standards of food, clothing, healthcare and shelter cannot be provided. This is measured as a percentage of a country's population living on less than $1 a day. There has been a decrease in absolute poverty worldwide over the past 50 years.
7. Has income inequality between rich and poor countries increased or decreased over the same period? How does the inclusion or exclusion of China from the analysis of global income inequality change the story?
Income inequality between the rich and the poor countries has increased over the same period. However, the inclusion of china in the analysis of global income inequality shows that the income inequality between rich and poor countries has decreased. China is a country that has been rapidly growing. Its economic development has removed millions of people out of poverty, and the economic reforms have improved the lives of millions in China.