Decision Support Systems
Decision support systems are computerized applications which help organizations in decision-making. Healthcare organizations depend on secure, efficient and effective technologies for decision-making at each and every level. Decision support systems have placed consolidations, federal mandates and meaningful utilization of tremendous pressure on Information Technology departments in healthcare services. There are many challenges in healthcare organizations including data sharing, integration and data management. However, DSS has been approved to give the best solutions regarding these challenges in healthcare centers. Digital imaging, wireless communication and electronic medical records are continually streamlined in healthcare organizations. This improves patient’s outcomes and data network.
Decision support systems can perform effectively in preventing cardiovascular disease. DSS help administrators to make effective and efficient decisions regarding blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the organization. Research shows that twenty eight percent of deaths which occurred last year were as a result of cardiovascular diseases. These are conspicuous proves to the problems in this center due to the increasing deaths every year from cardiovascular implications. Additionally, eleven percent of the disabilities resulted from the same disease. Sixty percent of stroke deaths were caused by hypertension. More than twenty percent of deaths were as a result of coronary heart disorders. Internationally, hypertension is recognized by World Health Organization to be among the top causes of precipitate deaths (Gupta, 1997).
Decision support systems are the only tools which will assist clinicians make effective decisions on the best action to take in order to save lives of their patients. They are implemented to enhance management of cardiovascular. They help physicians in prescribing proof-based medical care to all patients. Ultimately, this will achieve sufficient blood pressure management to all hypertensive patients. Decision support systems are advanced software which assist physicians in undertaking thorough assessments of the risk factors. It also assists them in classifying risk levels. It allows them to follow a computerized algorithmic strategies based on drug control. It also alerts clinicians on counseling needs, lifestyle changes as well as devotion to medical attention. Patients outcomes as well as physician performance is positively affected by DDS. There is improvement in antihypertensive treatment, which concurrently leads to reduction in the cost of drugs used.
Blood pressure measurements collected by clinicians are performed with digital equipments in a homogenous way. They are then supplied and legalized for analysis. Blood pressure is measured when the patient has been sitting for about five minutes. It is done at the right upper limb on the hand. Two measurements are taken at single minute interval on the arm with a suitable cuff which is connected to the digital devise. This is done at an analogous time of the day. The instructions recorded are handed in to the physician who ensures the lower periphery of the specific bladder is placed in two or three centimeters above the location of maximal pulse of the artery in that limb. The physician has to ensure the cuff fixes firmly, safely and comfortably. The average of the readings attained will be used in analyzing the risk level. The digital equipment records pulse measurements when the patient has rested for five minutes. This equipment records diastolic and systolic blood pressure as well as the pulse at the sitting level (Mackay & Mensah, 2004).
Waist circumference, height and weight measurements are also significant
Participants are weighed in insubstantial clothes using the digital weighing machine. The machine must be accurate to avoid inconveniences. It is important to ensure all participants are weighed with the same machine. Height is measured using a studio-meter when the participants are standing on bare feet. The digital machines have to be of the same type, validation procedures and structure. This ensures perfection in the analysis of data.
Data-regarding cardiovascular accelerators will be collected. These include tobacco usage, age, sex, and family history of coronary artery and diabetes mellitus disease. Similarly, medical history regarding renal, cerebral, vascular and cardiovascular diseases will be collected. International statistics of cardiovascular disease will be collected from World Health Organization. This will be done three times within twelve months (Gupta, 1997).
Questioners from World Health Organization will be used in the project. This is the questionnaire which is internationally accepted to analyze the quality of life. The questionnaire has twenty six items to be answered. It will be translated in the local language to ensure the locals understand the questions clearly. Any question which can hurt the culture of the locals is modified. Patients are allowed to read, comprehend and answer the questions in the questionnaire on their own. Linguistic difficulties and any other miscommunication have to be handled with immediate effect.
Cost efficiency analysis has to be done
There is need to compare cost in non-monetary and monetary units and the quantitative outcomes achieved. Capital required in the interventions, as well as the values attached to those resources, have to be analyzed. Cost/outcome ratios facilitate opportunity cost in the intervention to be compared. It is important to employ a third party financer who will facilitate comparison between tangible costs and intervention arms (Garg et al., 2005).
Goods and services require resources to provide effective healthcare services. Direct cost is incurred as the organization tries to deal with the consequences of the decision support system. This requires direct and non-direct resources which must be well-planned and accounted for. There is a need for physician services, drugs, hospital services, charts, posters, bill boards and other supplies. Purchasing the DSS platform requires capital. This means that the organization must plan for the implementation to avoid running out of funds before completion. Relative discounting of the cost should be done on their present rate to cater for possible increments per annum (Mackay & Mensah, 2004).
Hypertension exerts extensive burden on healthcare programs in this organization as well as the health status at large. Treatment of the disease is costly, leaving many patients suffering in pain. There is a great importance to produce a solution which will assist and inform decision-makers in distributing the limited health facilities. Decision support systems have been used successfully in the modern world to balance the cost and quality of chronic diseases. There is no risk attributed to decision support system. The software prompts the physician in prescribing drugs to the patient and controlling blood pressure. The physician is notified when any adverse event occurs. Physician’s judgment is based on the results from the computerized software. The judgment will determine whether the patient will continue using a certain type of drug or not. Patients’ confidentiality will be maintained at all stages. The system is protected to avoid leakages and access of information by unauthorized persons.
In conclusion, utilizing decision support system in managing hypertension can reduce the cost of medication, suffering and massive death caused by the disease. The system analyzes and presents the results to the physicians who, in turn, make wise decisions on the drugs to administer to the patients.