Running head: THE PRESS 1
THE PRESS 4
(1) The kind of press that serves only partisan interests is limited to one audience. Such press is oriented on the particular political group, which subsidizes the newspaper, and all editorial pages are devoted to them. The earliest papers were mainly created for the privileged readers since at the time they appeared only wealthy people could afford them. The elite were confined to more educated people who had control over commerce and politics.
(2) The newspapers became mass medium while the penny press era, because it was the time of the industrial revolution, and handmade papers got replaced by machine made papers. Therefore, the press became cheaper, and subscriptions were eliminated. The information given in those papers also changed into more interesting and exciting stories. There were also various celebrity gossips, local news, police reports and scandals.
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(3) Yellow journalism includes two main features: dramatic stories about crimes, scandals and famous people; and news reports about hunting out businessmen and government, and exposing corruption. Joseph Pulitzer was the one who started St. Louis dispatch, launched Pulitzer prizes, invented a free and impartial newspaper to serve nobody but people, and created an advice column. William Hearst was the founder of the New York Journal. He gave precedence to exciting and sensational stories, and decided to orient the press mostly on working and middle class.
(4) Objective journalism developed as a result of the extension of the consumer marketplace. Its main characteristic is that it sells actual facts and news to consumers. In objective journalism, there is a vivid distinction between factual reports and opinion columns. Its reporters strive to maintain a neutral opinion concerning the event or the story they cover. That is the main reason why more and more readers get attracted to this kind of journalism.
(5) Literary journalism is defined as fictional style of writing, which is adapted to nonfictional material. It emerged in 1960s as it was the time when people were criticizing American social institutions, such as political assassination, the Vietnam War, drug culture and civil rights protests. Literary journalism is just an attack on objective news, because instead of giving straight facts, it simply adds some extra reporting.
(6) Wire services are published on the daily basis. These newspapers sell reprinted articles to other papers. Syndications are certain commercial outlets that sign a contract with newspapers, and provide works from the best political writers and cartoonists on the regular basis.
(7) There are many reasons for the decline on newspaper circulation in the USA. One of them is economic depression and crash of a number of mass media companies. The newspapers are becoming less popular in the US, because of the rise of radio and network television. More women are getting full time jobs and newspapers are becoming forgotten. However, other nations, for example, Germany, maintain the culture of newspapers and magazines even in the era of Internet and television. Both older and younger generations still prefer reading a newspaper instead of surfing the Internet.
(8) The main problem of online news sites is their lack of profit. The reason for that is quite obvious all users access their online news for free, and do not think about paying for them. The news sites face the challenge of getting everyone to know about them, mainly through advertising. Besides, the online newspapers are generally oriented on young consumers, therefore, leaving older generations behind. Many online news companies decided to charge their users for information they read, and that can be another challenge for those companies. Young people would rather find some free of charge websites with short summaries of the same articles and stories than pay extra money at official news websites.
(9) The newspapers role in democracy is very important. Through newspapers people can get acquainted with the latest social events. The press keeps people aware of the most important issues in their country and all over the world. Newspapers are influential means for forming public opinion in a democratic country. Newspapers educate people and enable them to have individual opinion of important matters of the country. If not for newspapers, democratic societies would not probably exist.
(10) There are several topics that journalists chose to ignore while writing columns for mainstream newspapers. There is a vivid lack of coverage of public health issues. Newspapers tend to consider such topics unglamorous and not of importance to the reader despite their undeniable significance. Much more attention than is actually needed is paid to politics and government, but health problems are often missed out. Nevertheless, such topics as malaria virus, maternal mortality, water purification and agriculture are not in favor of most journalists.
(11) From my point of view, tablets and other new format devices most definitely will replace traditional printed newspapers, because there will be a time when people will no longer need printed versions of newspapers. However, it is a controversial question whether or not the printed press will disappear. Tablets give a lot of opportunities and are more comfortable for most people than printed papers. With the advancement of electronic devices, there are great opportunities in front of online news sites.